1.1 Background to the Study
Social Studies have social, political, economic and technological relevance to national development. This is because its content is organized around social and environmental issues affecting man’s existence, and his capability to manage, and preserve the environment for sustainable development (Mezieobi, Akpochafo and Mezieobi, 2010). Following the decision of the Federal Government of Nigeria to use education to empower the people and achieve the objectives of poverty eradication, job creation and wealth generation, it becomes imperative that the conventional methods of teaching social studies where are passive need be changed (Onuoha, 2011).
Vision 2010 is indeed an ambitious programme. It is a political proclamation of the Nigerian Government. The expectation is that by the year 2020, Nigeria will be counted among the top twenty (20) economies of the world alongside America, Japan, Russia and other super power of the world (Igbokwe, 2010). But to the researcher‟s view, how is the educational policy and its curriculum of social studies working towards achieving this vision of Nigeria becoming the top twenty (20) the world economies. Achieving the objectives of vision 20:2020 in JSS in Nigeria can only be realized through qualitative social studies instruction that is highly directed at radical socio-economic, political and scientific transformation of the nation. The innovation should aim at functional manpower who are imbued with positive values, attitudes and skills, which can further contribute to the development of Nigeria‟s economy, resource management and reconstruction of its physical environment to facilitate sustainable development, which is ideal for harmonious social living, interdependence and pace.
No nation can develop to its fullest and keep pace with modern societal trends in science and technology without effective and efficient education. Education is a basic force for the socio-economic and political transformation of the society (Imogie, 2011:2). The transformation agenda of vision 20:2020 is feasible in Nigeria through social studies at the junior secondary school if the content of social studies curriculum is effectively
implemented. Social studies teachers‟ classroom instructional effectiveness is instrumental to the effective implementation of the social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education noted that the quality of effective teaching is depended on the capability of trained social studies teachers and ability to stimulate learning to an appreciable extent. According to Ossai (2011) the method adopted by social studies teachers is a strong factor that can affect learners‟ level of achievement.
The researcher further maintained that method of instruction is a vehicle or strategy for teacher-learner communication, and that the neglect of adequate instructional strategies is a pedagogical competency deficiency. Accounting for the weaknesses in the effective instructional implementation of social studies curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools, Adeyemi (1989), Mkpa (1989) and Enem (2005) observed that integrated social studies curriculum in junior secondary school suffers from instructional neglect which is largely attributed to teachers inability to come to grip with the peculiar pedagogical demands of the subject.
It is the dynamism in teaching and learning of social studies that set the stage for the realization of the reformative objective of Vision 20:2020, because learners are trained to acquire positive skills, attitudes and values to reform their country’s economy.
Delannoy (2000) remarked that the teacher is a key player in educational aspiration of nations, but this is depended highly on the quality of their knowledge of the subject matter, ability to initiate learning experiences, integrate knowledge and demonstrate leadership and capability to resolve complex situations in the teaching learning process. The functional social studies teacher will channel social studies content instruction to meaningfully equip the learners with requisite potentials to become effective players in the realization of the goals of development. Linking social studies education as a
potential factor for national economic growth and transformation in Nigeria.Inogie (2010) remarked that education is the means through which the society perpetuates and develops itself culturally, socially and economically.
Teachers‟ instructional methods facilitate the teaching and learning of social studies. Mezieobi (1994) identified three methods that should be applied in the effective teaching of social studies as expository or class teaching methods, problem solving method and activity method. Social Studies instruction to young learners requires practical learning activities or exposure to issues endemic to the learning environment. The Social Studies teacher in order to achieve maximal teaching and learning of Social Studies in the classroom has to employ techniques that will exercise learner interest. Against this background, Akinyali, Bolarin, Daniyonu and Ayodele (1997:37) remark “… students transfer values of their experiences to solve social problems can only be achieved through innovative and modern open and direct experience learning strategies of inquiry, discussion and clarification of their attitudes and values”.
Arisi and Kpangban (1997) emphasized that variety of instructional strategies in teaching social studies in junior secondary school was to make the individual differences
of the young learners. Udo (1999) further added that the teaching of Social Studies require multiple teaching methods in the Social Studies content, stress dynamic innovative societal issues which are affected by changes in attitudes, values and knowledge procedures. The social studies teacher is expected to adopt various instructional approaches, illustrations and explanations, such that the learner is maximally involved in the teaching learning environment.
In addition, Obaegbalem (2004) expressed that the application of relevant methods equip the teacher with the requisite knowledge and skills to excuse the teaching of social studies more effectively and Stenhouse (1975) explained that teaching is not mere classroom instructional presentation but the capability of using instructional method to promote high learning. Stenhouse reiterates that the use of methods is an important aspect of social studies curriculum implementation. Social studies is an emerging discipline in Nigeria, which has emphasized the use of innovative teaching strategies in order to strengthen the effective implementation of the social studies curriculum towards achieving vision 20:2020. To buttress the foregoing discussion, Okam (1994) said that social studies represents one of those curricula arrangement which capitalized largely on the use of method sustained to the reasons for its existence as an important subject. In corroborating the proceeding view further, Ogbonna (1997:63) noted “a social studies teacher should possess a range of teaching strategies because different styles or patterns of teaching behaviours are used for different educational purposes hence every teacher (of studies) should use more than one way of teaching.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social Studies education is a discipline that is meant to develop in the learners positive attitudes, knowledge, skills, values and disposition for the enhancement and development of their own society. To ensure effective implementation of the curriculum of social studies in junior secondary schools is to make use of diverse strategies or methods in order to make learners active, reflective thinkers and problem solvers. However, the major concern for worry is that the prescribed innovative pedagogies for active participation of the learners in critical and reflective thinking, self development, self discovering, creativity amongst others are scarcely used by teachers who are enveloped in the application of traditional method of instruction which encourage learners passivity in the classroom. Yet, we emphasize learning to be learner centred where they are all fully involved in the teaching learning process.
Social studies education programmes are not being constantly evaluated in order to ensure its effectiveness and whether the objectives of the programme are being achieved. Feedback mechanism with regard to ensuring whether the stated objectives are being attained or not is only possible through evaluation. Thus, evaluation is an integral part of all educational programmes. Unfortunately, instances like lack of effective evaluation in the area of textbooks, instructional materials, teachers, methods as well as inconsistencies of policies affecting social studies, is what characterized the programme in Nigeria in general perspective and Kaduna State in particular at the Junior Secondary School level.
Also the content of Junior Secondary School Social Studies in Nigeria has often been described as very academic and out of touch with the needs and aspirations of the
society. Also, social studies curriculum has not been properly matched with the need of the country. It is the remoteness of the curriculum that makes social studies meaningless in the context of the freshly identified national needs. Also the focus of the control of teachers on student learning activity in social studies is the examination syllabus. In other words, teaching is grossly expository and authoritative while learning is a receptive and sub-massive acceptance of knowledge. Examination success is the prime objective and all activities are directed towards that end. Conformity or convergent thinking stands as a premium and adventurous or creative thinking is personalized or ignored.
Therefore, could these problems be attributed to the ways and manner social studies integrates various disciplines in the area of social science? Or could it be as a result of non-challant attitudes on the part of government? Or could it be related to the problems of teaching affecting social studies programmes.
The problem facing the implementation of social studies programme in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State is of serious concern to teachers, learners, government, parents and non-governmental organizations who are involved in the planning of the curriculum. Thus, this work would centre on how best to solve this perennial phenomenon. The work will also look into methods used in teaching of social studies, evaluation strategies as well as time allocated for social studies in the school programme in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The focus of this study is therefore to:
1. ascertainthe adequacy of the content of the social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools.
2. find out the qualification/experience of teachers for implementation of social studies curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools.
3. assess the appropriateness of the strategies, methods and techniques used in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools.
4. find out the availability and adequacy of instructional materials for the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools.
5. ascertain the adequacy of learning environment for the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The Study sought answers to the following research questions.
1. How adequate is the content of the social studies curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools?
2. What are the qualification/experiences of teachers involved in the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools?
3. How appropriate are the strategies, methods/techniques used by teachers in the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools?
4. To what extent are the available instructional materials adequate for the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools?
5. To what extent is the learning environment adequate for the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools?
Based on the objectives and research questions, the following hypotheses were developed.
1. There is no significant relationship between views on the adequacy of the content of social studies and its implementation in Junior Secondary Schools.
2. There is no significant relationship between views on qualification/experience of teachers and the effective implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools.
3. There is no significant relationship between strategies, methods and techniques that aid learning of Social Studies and its implementation at the Junior Secondary School level.
4. There is no significant relationship between availability of adequate instructional materials and the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in junior secondary schools level.
5. There is no significant relationship betweenlearning environment adequacy and the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in junior secondary schools level.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study makes the following assumptions.
1. Teachers‟ involvement in curriculum development empowers them to use a variety of teaching methods and materials that could promote more effective learning in social studies education.
2. Teacher may participate in the process of curriculum development, but they are usually treated as more likely guinea pigs than partners in the implementation of the curriculum.
3. Social studies teachers‟ participation in the development of the curriculum enhances the success of the implementation of that curriculum.