This study assessed the Impact of Resource Allocation on Leadership Performance of principals in Secondary Schools in Kano State, Nigeria. Five research objectives were raised for the study among which are to: ascertain the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; determine the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and assess the impact of material resource allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State. These objectives were formulated into five corresponding research questions and hypotheses. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 546 principals and 5,096 teachers. A sample size of 55 principals, 509 teachers and 10 Ministry of Education Officials were used in the study. An open-ended type of questionnaire was used to generate data for the study. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha technique which showed a reliability value of 0.79. The bio-data of the respondents were analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables, frequency counts and percentages, while the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. All the five null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at P = 0.05 (5%) level of significance. Findings among others showed that there is significant impact in the leadership performance of principals, teachers and MOE officials based on the qualified personnel allocation, funding allocation, material resource allocation as well as time resource allocation. Recommendations were made, among others, that Kano State government should realign staffing structures to accommodate the strengths and weaknesses of existing staff, and find ways to recruit and retain quality staff through compensation and support systems. Also, government at local and state level should ensure that administrative staff develop financial management skills for tem to understand the limits and flexibility of fund allocation sources in school management.
1.1 Background to the Study
Secondary education which serves as a link between primary and tertiary levels, is vital to national development. Resource allocation at this level is very vital to achievement of educational objectives and increase leadership performance. In ether words, leadership produces change that includes establishing direction through visioning, aligning people with the vision and strategies; motivating and inspiring staff. Resource allocation is a process and strategy involving an organisation deciding where scarce resources should be used in the production of goods or services. The study of educational resource allocation has traditionally focused on the distribution of state and federal revenues among schools with particular attention to equity in school funding.
Fairness in resource allocation is not only important for ensuring equity in education opportunities, it is also related to the performance of the education system as a whole. But in many school systems, resources are not allocated equitably regardless of their socio-economic profile. On average, disadvantaged schools tend to have smaller classes, they also tend to be more likely to suffer from teacher shortages, and shortages or inadequacy of educational materials and physical infrastructure, than advantaged schools (Pablo, 2014). Also in general, schools with more socio-economically disadvantaged students tend to have lower-quality resources than schools with more advantaged students.
The sustenance of qualitative secondary education depends largely on adequate allocation of physical and material resources in the schools; such as physical facilities like spacious and well ventilated classrooms, adequately equipped laboratories and technical workshops, well-stocked libraries, assembly halls, recreational ground, farm
land, gymnasia, health centers, counseling rooms, staff offices and conveniently placed urinals and latrines with sufficient allocation of material resources which are made up of items of furniture, laboratory materials (consumable and nonconsumable), motor vehicles, instructional tools, books and other stationery items as well as utilities such as electric power, gas and potable water in the schools will enhance organizational performance; and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes (David & Yongmei, 2012).
This assumes that qualitative secondary education can be effectively sustained if the schools are well funded. As succinctly put by Afolabi, Oyewusi and Ajayi (2008), ―the success of any secondary school depends upon the resources available to it. Money is very important in this respect because by it, all other vital elements in the school can be obtained such as buildings, purchase of equipment, payment of teachers‘ salaries and allowances and running expenses‖. They also maintained that school leaders cannot survive or carry out its functions effectively without adequate financial resources at its disposal. Money is needed to pay staff, maintain the plant and keep services going. In his own contribution on the importance of funding the school system, Mussazi (1982) in Afolabi, Oyewusi and Ajayi (2008) remarked that: ―for schools to function effectively, they need sufficient money, money is needed to buy textbooks, establish new buildings, pay teachers‘ salaries, buy science equipment and maintain other services that are required by a school to carry out its functions as an educational institutions‖. Of all the multifarious problems facing secondary school administration in Kano state today, none is as persistent and as agonizing as the one relating to the allocation and management of the available resources in the schools.
School leadership has become a priority in education policy agendas internationally. It plays a key role in improving school outcomes by influencing the
motivations and capacities of teachers, as well as the school climate and environment. Effective school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling (Beatriz, Deborah & Hunter, 2008). As countries are seeking to adapt their education systems to the needs of contemporary society, expectations for schools and school leaders are changing. Many countries have moved towards decentralisation, making schools more autonomous in their decision making and holding them more accountable for results. At the same time, the requirement to improve overall student performance while serving more diverse student populations is putting schools under pressure to use more evidence-based teaching practices.
As a result of these trends, the function of school leadership across schools is now increasingly defined by a demanding set of roles which include financial and human resource management and leadership for learning. There are concerns across countries that the role of principal as conceived for needs of the past is no longer appropriate. In many countries, principals have heavy workloads; many are reaching retirement and it is getting harder to replace them. Potential candidates often hesitate to apply, because of overburdened roles, insufficient preparation and training, limited career prospects and inadequate support and rewards. These developments have made school leadership a priority in education systems across the world. Policy makers need to enhance the quality of school leadership and make it sustainable.
Research has shown that school leaders can make a difference in school and student performance if adequate resources are allocated to them to enable them make important decisions. However, adequate resource allocation alone does not automatically lead to improvements unless it is well supported. In addition, it is important that the core responsibilities of school leaders be clearly defined and
delimited. School leadership responsibilities should be defined through an understanding of the practices most likely to improve their performance.
Performance has long been a focus for organisations concerned with increasing efficiency and productivity (Won-joo & Frank, 2009). However the management of ‗leadership capacity‘ is a relatively more recent consideration. Organisations across all sectors now regard leadership as a key enabler of organisational performance and competitive advantage and are investing greater and greater sums into leadership development activities (Raelin, 2004). Given this level of investment it is not surprising that many have now turned their attention to how best to manage their leadership talent to ensure succession, progression and the delivery of organisational objectives.
Leadership is one of the most widely discussed and researched aspects of an organisation. Leadership assumes that organizations perform best when sufficient resources are allocated and leaders take actions that influence people to work harder or more efficiently. That is, leaders take action that lead to greater organizational success, typically measured by revenue and profit growth. By the same logic, great leaders are the ones who gain the most for their organizations. Good leadership is not about treating people as a means to some other end. Good leaders take care of their people and as well enrich their lives. Gill (2006), opined that good leadership is characterized by the quality of interactions rather than hierarchical level; team problem solving; conversation rather than instructions, shared values, and beliefs; and honesty and a desire for the common good.
Traditionally, school leaders focused on the management of resources allocated to their school. A well-run school where buses run on time, the facility is clean, and the halls are orderly and quiet used to be the mark of an effective school leader. With the shift to leadership for learning, maintaining an orderly environment is necessary but not
sufficient to meet the expectations and accountability requirements facing educators today. Education leaders need a systems approach in complex organizations of schools. In order to ensure the success of all students and provide a high-performing learning environment, education leaders manage daily operations and environments through efficiently and effectively aligning resources with vision and goals. Extolling the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance, leaders identify and allocate resources equitably to address the unique academic, physical, and mental health needs of all students. Leaders address any conditions that might impede student and staff learning, and they implement laws and policies that protect safety of students and staff. They promote and maintain a trustworthy, professional work environment by fulfilling their legal responsibilities, enacting appropriate policies, supporting due process, and protecting civil and human rights of all. In view of the above, this study is specifically set out to ascertain the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in senior secondary schools in Kano State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
School leaders experience difficulty in deciding the balance between higher order tasks designed to improve staff, student and school performance (leadership), routine maintenance of present operations (management) and lower order duties (administration). The increased responsibilities and accountability of school leadership are creating the need for effective resource allocation, both within schools and across schools. School boards also face many new tasks. While stakeholders consider resource allocation vital for effective school leadership, these practices remain rare and often unclear; and those involved are not always recognized for their tasks.
As the key intermediary between the classroom, the individual school and the education system as a whole, effective school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling. Within each individual school, leadership can contribute to improve student learning by shaping the conditions and climate in which teaching and learning occur. Funding may be another fundamental factor in relations to resources, availability and accessibility of fund in a giving organisation is not just enough rather, proper management and utilization of such funds is highly crucial especially in an organisation like school. Observation shows that most secondary school in Kano State may likely be having problem of mismanagement especially management of funds (Shoshani, 2001). This could be as a result of corruption, political involvement in education, appointment of unqualified personnel to handle financial sector in the school. Shortage of facilities (computer) that will man the affairs of assessing, controlling and keeping record related to financial expenditure.
Of all the numerous problems facing secondary school administration in Kano State today, none is as persistent and as agonizing as the one relating to the allocation of resources in the schools (Monk & Hussain, 2000). The recent free education in Kano State has led to the rapid expansion of the secondary school system. It is no gainsaying that such rapid expansion of the school system will bring about high demand for more school buildings, more qualified and competent teachers and clerical staff and instructional facilities for effective teaching and learning in the schools. Therefore, one of the most effective ways of sustaining free qualitative education is to supply the schools adequately with highly competent and well motivated human resources.
Furthermore, most school leaders failed to address other staff or stakeholders who contradict the vision by displaying low or negative expectations; contests or eliminates courses and grading policies that contradict the vision and mission as a result
of inadequate resource allocation in the school. Many a time, the school leaders neglect the use of outputs from a school-wide assessment to identify priority areas for improvement and to set measurable goals with specific grade level and content areas targets; names milestones and benchmarks of student progress and develops a school improvement plan that identifies a strategy to reach school-wide targets and goals.
Resource allocation might strengthen management and succession planning. Resource allocation across different people and organisational structures might help to meet the challenges facing contemporary schools and improve school effectiveness. The fact is that one of the major factors maximizing the gulf between educational goals and accomplishments has been the way resources have been allocated. Following the above stated problems, this study sought to ascertain the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in senior secondary schools in Kano state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study was set to achieve the following objectives:
1. Ascertain the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
2. Determine the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
3. Assess the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
4. Investigate the impact of time allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and
5. Find out the impact of curriculum resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State.
1.4 Research Questions
In pursuance of the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated for the study:
1. What impact does qualify personnel allocation have on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?
2. In what way do funding allocation impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?
3. What is the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?
4. What is the impact of time allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?
5. How does curriculum resources allocation impact leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated for this study:
HO1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
HO2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
HO3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
HO4 There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and
MOE officials on the impact of time allocation on leadership performance of
principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and
HO5 There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and
MOE officials on the impact of curriculum resources allocation on leadership
performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study was carried out with the assumptions that:
1. When qualified personnel are allocated to school‘s leadership performance of principals in secondary schools will be improved;
2. Adequate fund allocation may impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
3. Adequate material resources allocation will impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;
4. Good use of time allocation is assumed to have impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and
5. Effective use of curriculum resources is assumed to have positive impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Leadership is commonly seen as an important variable affecting organizational performance. Leadership is a broader concept where authority to lead does not reside only in one person, but can be distributed among different people within and beyond the school. School leadership can encompass people occupying various roles and functions
such as principals, deputy and assistant principals, leadership t.