The main objective of this study was to establish the Influence of Model Office and Studio on Skill Acquisitions by Business Education Students in colleges of education in North Central, Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was used for this study. The population for the study was two hundred and twenty seven (227)of which there are 190 NCE II students and 37 lecturersfrom threeColleges of Education in North Central of Nigeria. The sample size for the study include 19 NCE II students and 37 lecturers of threeColleges of Education in the North Central Zone, Nigeria. The questionnaire was administered to both students and lecturers for data collection.The data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. Four null hypotheses raised were tested with t-test statistical tools at 0.05 level of significance. From the four null hypotheses raised and tested, three were rejected while one was retained. Based on the findingsof the studyit was established that the quality and quantity of facilities found in word processing studio have influence on the skill acquisition of business education students in colleges of education. It was concluded that facilities found in model office in Colleges of Education in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria had significant negative influence on the skill acquisition of Business education students. It was recommended that existing facilities found in word processing studio should be standardized to enhanced skill acquisition of NCE business education students. It was concluded that facilities found in model office in Colleges of Education in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria had significant negative influence on the skill acquisition of Business education students.
1.1 Background to the Study
Business studies refers to those business subjects taught at the secondary school level such as book-keeping, keyboarding, shorthand, general subjects-equal with education for entrance into business word given at any educational level.
Business studies at the postgraduate level are referred as business education. These include Accountancy, marketing, Business Administration, OTM and Business Teacher education. This certainly tells us that business education is an incredibly adaptable area which has related aims and objectives.
There are some formal definitions of business education for instanceBusinesseducationweb.com (2015) stated that; Business education could simply mean an educational process or context which has as its primary aim preparation of people for roles enterprises such roles could be as employee, entrepreneur, and an employer or simply as self-employed.
Stillonthedefinition ofbusinesseducation,Njoku (1997)defines
businesseducationasthat facetofeducational training thathelpsthe individualtoacquirerelevantskillsneededforliving. On the other hand, Osuala (1981) described business education a ―systematic learning experiences which are designed to fit individuals for gainful employment in recognizedoccupations, prepares students for entering into and advancement in jobs.Business education prepares students to handle their own business affairs and to function intelligently asconsumers and as citizens ina business community.Aliyu (2001) defined business education as an education programme, which
involves acquisition of skills, competences and knowledge, which makes the recipients proficient in the area of study, which always being understood, literate and illiterates. It is an umbrella under which all business courses take over.It is obvious that business education comprise almost all the knowledge which hold prospect of profitable exploration in the context of a business enterprise such knowledge could simply be administrative or even extent to the realm of the humanities it can then be the include that business education prepares people for four dissimilar roles in enterprises.
Business education in one context is called Office education administration equips students with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required to be successful as an administrative, secretarial or personal assistant. The subject lays the foundation for lifelonglearning and creates the opportunity for further and higher education (Ekpenyong, 2008). Office education is designed to give students relevant and marketable skills and applied competencies for employment and self- employment in the office administration sector. Administration competencies apply to all industries, both in the formal and informal commercial sector and the non commercial sector. Office education simultaneously builds the cognitive ability and provides the required fundamental learning necessary for accessing employment in the business and administration sector and related studies at higher education level with enhanced employment opportunities.Office education is expected to be equipped with office kind of Studiowith facilities for stocking instruction as typewriters, multimedia projector, digital projector, interactive radio, electronic copy boards, photocopying machine, adding machine and stapling machines.
A model office is a prototype of an office that students are learning from and it particularly if is well equipped with the latest equipment and gadgets. These gadgets may
include: a franking machine, computers that are connected to the internet for browsing and sending of correspondents, shredding machine, rubber stamp, sealing machine, stapling machines, a good photocopier, label makers, point of sales systems, the most modern furniture in terms of seats, and table with good lighting system and ventilation.
The model office is an office that is well equipped with model office equipments for the purpose of facilitating day to day office activities. This equipment includes computers, photocopying machines, stapling machines, adding machines, telephone, and duplicating machines. In a model office apart from written information, oral information is received which forms the bulk of the work done in the office. The clerical duties carried out in the office are complementary to the main purpose of the modern office. Regardless of size, modern offices are similar both in purpose and operation. The methods used to get work done may vary from one department to another within the same office, but the type of work performed is essentially similar. It should be understood clearly that the office is a management tool and as such its services are useful to those responsible for the overall direction of operation in the organization. In modern offices the following equipment are found. Franking machines, sealing machines, shredding machines, rubber stamp, stapling machines, date stapling machines, duplicating machines, photocopying machines, and computers
The importance of office machines can be realized from the following:They save labour and time. The time that work could have taken to be done without machine is reduced and labour too is saved; they promote accuracy and improve the quality of office work; they relieve monotony and fatigue on the part of the worker; they produce a better
type of finished work. The appearance of the produced work is better than hand written ones and can last much longer; they promote efficiency and productivity is increased.
There are reforms in most sectors of our economy. The educational sector is not an exception. Therefore, the present education reforms going on in Nigeria since 1999 are Government‘s response to non-performance of the sector. Especially the products of the systems are not meeting the needs of the society. It was also identified and pursued that in trying to rebuild and make the system functional, there was a need to start from the basic ingredient of learning. That basic ingredient is availability of instructional resources.
According to Oby (2000) Business Education Studio is a room or a building in or outside the school system, where learning materials and office equipment are mounted to aid student learning special skills. Oby (2000) identifies different names given to Educational resource Center to include but not limited to media center, Learning Resource center, Resource Center, Center for curriculum and Instructional development.
According to Ngoka (1995), Business Studio is a service area providing for the use and distribution of information to students and teachers in multimedia forms to facilitate the teaching and learning process. According Eze (2002) Business studio is; A building in or outside the school system with adequate spaces, staff, software and hardware materials, where learners may go and study either individually or in a group or consult with staff of the centre and where facilities exist for determining individual differences and where instructional materials tailored to meet their individual differences and produce, utilize and disseminate. Eze (2002) sees an area, or complex of areas equipped with diversity of print and non-print media material, types of audio-visual equipment and programmed instruction, and designed to various learning styles and needs both through physical design
and through the application of a systematic process approach to individualization of instruction.
Business studio therefore seeks to provide enough information, regarding location, organization, materials and resources person outside the institution, which will enhance and promote learning. A Business studio for the 21st century is expected to have space for various types of activities. The equipment for the best practice; for the production of instructional materials, reprographic unit,recording studio, computer terminals, and photographic darkroom which are seen by office studio lecturers in the Nigeria colleges of education. Such emphasis should be generally considered at the universities, colleges of education in North Central part of Nigeria. Model offices and studios do not seems to attract sufficient attention from the students and even their teachers. This assumption can only be proven through research which this study should shed light on.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are general assumptions that there seems to be lack of interest by students and possibly teachers on the importance of model office and material for instructional purposes and effective learning achievement.
From the researcher‘s personal findings, observations and interaction with the students and lecturers of business education, on the physical availability of facilities that are expected to be found in the model office forskill acquisition include word processing, computer, photocopying among others that students can utilize and practice on it to acquire the skills related to their area of study. As the researcher not readily found studio on the state of availability and utilization of relevant model office materials for the purpose of enhancing business education acquisition of the relevant skill knowledge and application in
their areas of study, the researcher consider it necessary to conduct this study. In other words, the researcher is interested in knowing about model office materials on the level of skills of business education student‘s colleges of education in the North-Central state colleges of education to enhance their learning.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study was to determine the influence of model office and studio on skills acquisition of business education students in colleges of education in north-central, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to:
1. assess the extent to which facilities found in word processing studio has influence the skill acquisition level of business education students in colleges of education in North Central geo political zone of Nigeria.
2. determine the extent to which equipment found in the model office can influence the skill acquisition level of business education students in North Central geo political zone, Nigeria.
3. establish the extent to which audio-visual materials found in model office can influence the level of the learning skill acquisition on business education students in colleges of education in North Central geo political zone Nigeria.
4. assess the factors which may hinder acquiring the necessary skills of materials available in their model offices laboratories of business education students in North-Central geo-political zone, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
In line with each specific objectives, the following research questions were addressed:
1. To what extent do facilities found in word processing studioinfluence theskill acquisition level of business education students in colleges of education in North-Central geo-political zone, Nigeria?
2. To what extent is the influence of the facilities found in the model office caninfluence the skill acquisition level of business education students in North Central geo political zone, Nigeria?
3. To what extent do the audio-visual materials in themodel office of COE in North geo-political zone influence their business education student‘s level of audio-visual skill acquisition?
4. What are the factors which trend to influence business education student‘s inability to acquire the skill of relevant instructional materials found in their model office in colleges of education in North Central geo-political zone, Nigeria?
In line with the specific objectives and research questions, the following null hypotheses were raised and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
1. There is no significant influence on the facilities found in word processing studio on skill acquisition of male and female business education students in colleges of education in North Central geo-political zone, Nigeria.
2. There is no significant influence of equipment found in the model office on the skill acquisition level of male and female of business education students in colleges of education in North-Central zone, Nigeria.
3. There is no significant influence of model office on skill acquisition of business education students in colleges of education in north-central zone, Nigeria.
4. There is no significant factors which influence business education student‘s inability to acquire the skill of relevant instructional materials found in their model office studio in colleges of education in North Central geo-political zone, Nigeria?
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is expected that the following will benefit from this study. The lecturers, the business education students; the school administration of Colleges of Education and the researchers.
This study will be very useful to lecturers of Business Education in Colleges of Education, who know the importance of Model Office in their pedagogical applications, since it is necessary for effective delivery and acquisition of practical skills for future applications.
The study will be of great significance to school administrations of colleges of education in the sense that, this study will give an insight of what isexpected of them in planning for the students and teachers in the future, if they want to turn out trained teachers for the 21st century classroom and labour market.
The study will be of great significance to the Ministry of Education, as well as Ministry of Science and Technology, as they are the principal determinants in the pedagogic aspect of effective Business Education programme delivery and teacher education training programme in Nigeria. The findings of the study will enable them to understand the situation and position of Model Office in teacher training and pedagogy.
Furthermore, the study will be of great significance to other researchers who may embark on similar or related field studies on this topic. The findings will enable them to
know the extent studies have been carried out in this field and also this study will serve as a point of reference to them and source of literature review.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
This study assumed that:
1. All the Colleges of Education in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria have Model Office.
2. There is availability of Model Office and Studio facilities in all Colleges of Education in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria where Business Education is offered.
3. Studio equipment in Colleges of Education in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeriaare up-to-date.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
There are nine (9) Colleges of Education in North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria, with a population of 736 students in NCE II, and 92 Lecturers. The study wasdelimited to NCE II students and Lecturers in Business Education Department in three Colleges of Education (Niger State College of Education Minna, Federal Capital Territory College of Education Zuba and Kogi State College of Education Ankpa) in the North Central Geo-political Zone of Nigeria. Studio in business education has great power for skill acquisition such as word processing Studio, short hand studio model office and entrepreneurship studio. This study is delimited to word processing studioand the model office. It will also be delimited to their 1st semester results in 2014/2015 academic session. The reasons why this study is delimited to students of business is because the students of business education make use of the studio and model offices to enable them acquire the
prerequisite skills needed for gainful employment or for self-employment after graduation. The study is also delimited to NCE II students because the study wants to find out the effect the model office and their academic performance for academic secession.
The study is also delimited to lecturers of business education because they are the ones who need the model offices and studios for effective teaching of business practical subjects which complements the theory which they have taught students in class. Business education is a skilled oriented course and as such teaching students only the theoretical aspects without practical aspects coupled with the necessary facilities is as good as not teaching the course..