This study investigated the impact of single and multiple-shift schooling systems on Islamic Studies students‘ Performance in Secondary Schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study sought out the impact of; single shift system, multiple-shift systems, single and multiple-shift systems on males and female students, and differences of single and multiple-systems on junior secondary school students‘ performance in Islamic Studies. The study adopted Ex-post facto research design; the target population comprised all public junior secondary schools (JSS) III students in Adamawa state, which are 49,899 with a sample size of 381. Participants of the study consisted of male, female from ten different schools in mubi educational zone, a pilot study was conducted at Doubeli GDSS, and Yelwa GDSS, a reliability coefficient of 0.78 at 0.05 level of significance was obtained. Results sheet was used as an instrument for collecting data and the junior secondary school certificate examination (JSSCE) scores from 2010-2014 were used as data. The findings of this study suggest that the Performances of single shift systems‘ students and the multiple-shift systems students‘ performance with p-value .231˃ 0.05 which is not significant, alsostudents‘ performance in JSSCE from 2010-2014 revealed that, in single shift system students‘ performance were better than the multiple-shift systems students‘ performance with P-value 0. 038 <0.05. Similarly, performance of male students in single and multiple-systems and the female students in single and multiple-systems with p- value 0 .816 ˃ 0.05which is not significant, therefore the study concluded that multiple-shift schooling systems had a negative impact on students‘ performance in mubi educational zone. In this regard the study recommended that the Adamawa state government /non- government agencies such as; MDGs and World Bank should increase funds to education. As well, teachers‘ strengths and welfare should be encouraged. Adequate, relevant materials and infrastructures should be provided by the Adamawa state government for effective learning.
1.1Background to the Study
Education is essential for everyone; it is the level of education that helps people earn respect and recognition; it is an indispensable part of life, both personally and socially. However, unequal standard of education is still a major problem that needs to be solved, education plays such a rudimentary role in our society that we cannot even imagine life without it; Education is a determined element in the civilization of human society. Furthermore, the world is placed in a time when there is great optimism about the power of education to influence the well-being of individuals and nations. Education, which is the fundamental instrument for development in all countries, is not fulfilling the objectives set down in the National Policy of Education (NPE). The hopes of every country in the world is to develop human capital for effective functioning of the society is hinged on education, being an instrument of change.
The goal of every educational system in any country is to obtain and maintain high academic standards. Thus, with the scarcity of learning equipments such as; laboratory, class rooms and over population in our schools, shift system of schooling was introduced in order to do away with the problems of over population in our system. Single shift system of schooling is the type of educational system which provides education for school children in the morning hours only, while multiple shift system is a system of schooling whereby the school provides education for two different categories of the school age population at different sessions or times, some in the morning and others in afternoon of the school day, but diverse cohorts of students use the same building and have the same academic curriculum. These systems of schooling are a characteristic of developing countries where human and material resources are
very scarce (London, 1993) and where finance for the education sector is very limited (Bray, 2008). Many developing countries adopted the systems to cater for the increasing enrolment in schools resulting from educational policies geared towards improving access to education for all (EFA).
Students‘ performance can be defined as the score a child or individual obtains
in test or examination based on his or her learning experiences. Boon (2007), Good (2003), have defined academic performance as knowledge, attitude or skills developed in the school subject usually by test scores or by marks assigned by the teacher or by both, this is in lined with the view of Aremu (2001), while stressing the importance of academic performance in the educational system, was of the view that academic performance is a fundamental criterion by which all teaching–learning activities are measured, using some standards of excellence and the acquisition of particular grades in examinations; measures candidate‘s ability, mastery of the content, skills in applying the knowledge acquired to a particular situation. Moreover, Mehta (1989), Crow and Crow (2006), Adedeji (1998) stated that students‘ performance is very important because, it appears to be the major criterion by which the effectiveness and success of any educational institution could be judged. Though, academic performance has been of great concern to parents/guardians throughout the world, it is a subject of discussion and debate among scholars (Alaka, 2011).
Parents and caregivers see education as a way for their children to improve their lives by building an understanding of their place in the world. It is also the principal means by which young people passing exams and gaining credentials can gain an advantage in the labour market. Teachers, always have hope to pass on the wisdom of generations of equipping students for the future (Lauder, Brown, Dillabough, and Hasley, 2006). From the above, education is deemed very vital for individual
development and national or societal progress as well. Through schooling people become empowered because it opens up avenues of communication that otherwise would be closed.
In addition, people are in a position to unlock a range of talents and realize their creative potentials, which then gives those at the disadvantage the opportunity to move from exclusion to full participation in society. Hence, it is considered to strengthen one's self-confidence to enable one participate in community affairs and influence political issues (UNESCO, 1997). Education also serves to empower an entire nation or society. UNESCO (1997) asserts that educated citizens and workers have the skills to make autonomous institutions function effectively to meet the demands of a more sophisticated workforce, to push for a cleaner environment and meet their obligations as parents and citizens (UNESCO, 1997).
Moreover, the important role that education is thought to play has made both developed and developing countries introduce new efforts or reform in their educational policies for their educational system to improve the quality of education at all levels of schooling, especially the basic level to meet the changing demands of society. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2013),stated Nigeria‘s philosophy of education is based on the following set of beliefs:
1. Education is an instrument for national development and societal change;
2. Education is vital for the promotion of a progressive and united Nigeria;
3. Education maximizes the creative potentials and skills of the individual for self-fulfillment and general development of the society;
4. Education is compulsory and the right of every Nigerian irrespective of gender, social status, religion, ethnic background and any peculiar individual challenges; and
5. Education is to be qualitative, comprehensive, functional and relevant to the needs of the society;
6. This philosophy of Nigeria education is based on the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen and the provision of equal opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the basic, secondary, and tertiary levels both inside and outside the formal school systems.(FRN, 2013 p.13-14).
Education in Nigeria is a precious instrument of political, social, economic, scientific, technological development, among the levels of education, secondary education is the fulcrum of the entire educational system, which is fast losing its relevance, and because of itstudents are failing in public examinations, whichis among the factors that lead to it.
At the inception of the 6-3-3-4 system of education, Islamic Studies was a core Subject at the junior secondary school level, but elective at the senior secondary. In the 1998 edition of the National Policy on Education, the subject was elective at both levels of secondary education. However, with the publication of another edition of the policy in 2004, the subject became elective at the junior secondary level and a core subject at the senior secondary level.
Many attempts have been made to define Islamic education. According to Ashraf and Hussain (1979), Islamic education entails giving instruction on purely theological matters, such that the trainee would be able to practice the five pillars of Islam. Similarly, Mohammad (1980) opined that Islamic education is a process of self-discipline, which ensures spiritual and intellectual growth of the individual.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Single shift-system (SSS) and multiple shift-systems (MSS) of schooling had exist in some cities in Adamawa State to foster education and give to every child equal
opportunity to access education as stated in the National Policy of Education. But how have these systems impacted on the performance of students in Islamic Studies at the junior secondary school (JSS III) level in Adamawa State; therefore act to determine how the single shift system with tits advantage of having sufficient time to teach affects performance and how the multiple-shift systems with its challenge of having fewer lessons and shorter time per period, affects students‘ performance in Islamic Studies
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to examine the impact of single and multiple-shift schooling systems on Islamic Studies students‘ performance in secondary schools in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The study intended to;
1. determine the impact of single shift-system on students‘ performance in Islamic
Studies in junior secondary school III in Adamawa State.
2. investigate the impact of multiple shift-systems on students‘ performance in
Islamic Studies in junior secondary school III in Adamawa State.
3. determine the difference on the impact of single shift-system and multiple shift-systems on students‘ performance in Islamic Studies in junior secondary school
III in Adamawa State.
4. determine the impact of single shift-system and multiple shift-systems on male and female students‘ performance in Islamic Studies in junior secondary school
III in Adamawa State
1.4 Research Questions
This study aims to provide answers to the following research questions, which were formulated to guide the study.
1. What is the impact of single shift-system has on students‘ performance in
Islamic Studies in junior secondary school III in Adamawa State?
2. What is the impact of multiple shift-systems has on students‘ performance in
Islamic Studies in junior secondary school III in Adamawa State?
3. What is thedifference in the impact of single shift-system and multiple shift-systems on students‘ performance in Islamic Studies on junior secondary school
III in Adamawa State?
4. To what extent does the impact of single shift-system and multiple shift-systems on junior secondary school III male and female students‘ performance in Islamic Studies in in Adamawa State?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
1. Single shift-system has no significant impact on junior secondary school III students‘ performance in Islamic Studies in Adamawa State.
2. Multiple shift-systems have no significant impact on junior secondary school III students‘ performance in Islamic Studies in Adamawa State.
3. There is no significant difference on the impact of single shift-system and multiple shift-systems on junior secondary school III students‘ performance
4. Single shift-system and multiple shift-systems have no significant impact on junior secondary school III male and female students‘ performance in
Islamic Studies in Adamawa State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions.
1. Performing better in academic institution has to do with single session.
2. Students in the multiple-shift systems score low in terms of performance and their admission is related to their background
3. Operating single and multiple-shift systems had impact on teaching and learning program.
4. Male students do well and active academically than female in any schools systems either in single shift system or in multiple-shift systems.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study have the following significance.
The finding of the study would be beneficial to government in considering the need for placing a larger percentage of annual budget to education in regard to school expansion, infrastructures, conditions of teaching, teachers, and students during stormy weather.
The outcomes will assist school administrators concerned how to design a school timetable, and extramural activities in different sessions. The study would benefit secondary school teachers and other stakeholders in realizing the challenges on ground that is affecting our educational sectors.
Curriculum designers will have a vibrant judgment of different systems and discover out how to design a curriculum for these types of school systems, which would beat off its weather or mood. Both inner and external nongovernmental organizations would obtain a conclusive clue on problems that is facing our secondary schools and sympathetic types of assistance is required.
This research will also be beneficial to parents who are stake holders and joint patners responsible, for ensuring the effective learning by understanding what the systems are and how to provide necessary support to it. Also, teachers will benefit by understanding the systems, students psychologically and locating lessons, either in early hours and late time.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study impact of single and multiple-shift schooling systems on Islamic studies students‘ performance in secondary schools delimited to Adamawa State, Nigeria, which comprised five Education Zones namely: Mubi, Yola, Gombi, Numan, and Ganye zones, merely. It focused only public junior secondary schools. It was further delimited to students that offered Islamic Studies in Junior Secondary Schools 3 (JSS III) classes, placed in five (5) local governments, Mubi north, Mubi south, Maiha, Minchika and Madagali in Mubi zone, Adamawa Northern senatorial zone. The main concern was determing the impact of Single and Multiple-Shift Systems on students‘ performance in Islamic Studies..