1.1Background of the study
According to Abubakar, (2012) human resources are the key to development in any society. As a result, training and workforce development is an issue commonly used by all organizations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their workforce in order to achieve the objectives already set. Organizations are complicated and diverse, and roles and responsibilities differ. This means that different people with different skills and expertise must be assigned these distinct functions in order for the organization to survive (Abubakar, 2012). But this workforce as stated by Dickson, (2008) can not function if they are not trained and developed to be effective and efficient in their respective missions. To achieve this, Adam, (2010) opined that training and the development of the workforce become absolutely necessary. Training and development of human resources create and improve the capacity to fulfill the roles assigned by an organization. It is pertinent to say that the quality of the staff of an organization is often the only factor that determines whether the organization will succeed; if it achieves a satisfactory return on its investments and to what extent it will achieve its fundamental objectives (Adam, 2010). As Adamolekun, (2008) points out that whatever the quality of the organization of a plant or the scientific quality of processes and machines; it is not well managed unless the condition in which the employees of all ranks of work are likely to encourage them to give their best (Adamolekun, 2008). No one is perfect at the time of hiring and training and education must take place (Flippo, 2011: 181). Organizations can not pretend to ignore this and must therefore consider that they have a responsibility to ensure that employees receive adequate training and skills development (James, 2010). However, Walker, (2012) argues that in the 1990s and beyond, organizations invest more and not less in efforts to retain, train and develop talent.
In Nigeria, the federal government and the civil service monitor the appointment, promotion, discipline and performance evaluation of staff in the exercise of their authority. The Public Service Commission has transferred or financed the necessary expenditures to delegate some of their functions to the head of department, permanent secretaries and the head of the extra - ministerial department for the execution of these various organizations. This shows that the functions of personnel management in the public service are shared between the various bodies and the Civil Service Commission (Adebayo, 2008). This is why Banjoko, (2009) argued that the organization of public staff is disjointed, fragmented and highly disordered, suggesting that there are several bodies responsible for personnel management functions in the public service. This includes: Ministry of Education; The Public Service Commission; Or the Public Service Commission and the Chief of Service (Banjoko, 2009)
However, Lathan, (2014) maintained that the term public enterprise is a broad concept. According to the new encyclopedias, it denotes "an organization operating (or supposed to be exploited) on commercial principles held wholly or partly and effectively controlled by the public authority". It main function can be; The provision of certain infrastructure services, ie social services; Supply of electricity, casing water, system of delivery of health care to the citizens for the improvement of their well-being (Lathan, 2014). In addition, there are several types of public enterprises. But basically, it could be classified into groups such as; essential service providers and those of a commercial nature. Those providing essential services or utilities in Nigeria include the National Power Authority now Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Water Cooperation. These are directed and operated in order to promote essential services; profit is not a high motive in the operation. Some examples of cooperation or public enterprises with economic motivation are the Nigerian National Petroleum Cooperation, etc. The very essence of making social service for people required the government to make the most efficient forms of supply of goods and services (Abasi-Ekong, 2011). Again, Abubakar, (2012) opined that Nigerians can now summarize by saying that public enterprises belong to states or to a federal government normally created by law, which sets out its functions, types of management and relations with governmental authorities. It is funded by the government and must be up to its current costs and does not necessarily have to make abnormal or supernormal profits as in the case, especially those providing utilities, which are supposed to change socially and distinct from the economic cost (Abubakar, 2012). The administration of this essential institution is entrusted to the management and the ministers. The board is more than a number with a president and general manager appointed by the board and charged with the effective conduct of the company's day-to-day business (Adedeji, 2010).
Therefore, this research revolves around the civil service in the state of Anambra which was established in 1991 as an indispensable arm of the government of Anambra State to fulfill the contractual relations between the people and the government. The justification for the periods chosen was based on the fact that the civil service of Anambra State in this period had few results in the performance of their duties, which largely affected the development of the State. According to Okoli, (2011) the civil service of Anambra State serves as a catalyst for development. The civil service was actually seen to maintain the existing status and not development-oriented (Okoli 2012: 16). This is the legacy bequeathed by the colonial masters. Attention was focused on how to improve the effectiveness of the civil service / civil servants without resorting to fundamental questions on how to manage training and workforce development programs to improve their performance (Chiklo, 2013). Obviously, Abasi-Ekong , (2011) observed that without government officials or service, the government can not function; It is therefore necessary that the training and development of the workforce in the Anambra State civil service be properly articulated and implemented to improve the performance of civil servants in the face of the challenges of national development. Drucker, (2012) states that "a good organizational structure itself does not guarantee good performance, but that the training and development of human resources will provide civil servants with the relevant professional skills and knowledge that will enable effective and efficient performance. In order to update the contractual responsibility with the people relies solely on the civil service. Augustus (2008) asserted that public servants need to be developed from the moment of recruitment until disengagement or retirement to enable them to facilitate and accelerate growth and development in the country. It is imperative to say that, without trained and qualified personnel, the government of Anambra State can not function effectively to bring about expected or desired development (Augustus, 2008).
Therefore, the need to study the labor market development programs of the civil service of Anambra State to determine its impact on the performance of civil servants in the State. To improve the quality and content of the administration in the ministries, departments and agencies, the Anambra State Civil Service Commission gathered all the circulars issued by the commission from March 1994 to March 2016 (Oyedele, 2016). Moreover, Oronsaye, (2015) disclosed that the secretary Commission, Mrs Obiageli Nwankwo, the journalists on behalf of the President said that the Commission had decided to compile and publish the circulars which would serve as a guide to current rules, regulations and policies underlining the day-to-day administration of service (Oronsaye, 2015). Besides, Nwankwo, (2016) added that the publication which is on sale in the Commission at the unit cost of N2000 will also serve as reference material, among other archival purposes. Equally, according to Idahosa, (2015) with the introduction of the Corporate Planning Process (CP) in Anambra State in 2012, the Human Resources Management (HRM) function has undergone significant changes. The Government of Anambra (AnSG) attaches considerable importance to the management and development of its staff. There is a growing recognition that public service personnel are an essential resource and should not simply be seen as a cost (Idahosa, 2015). In the past, personnel administration systems focused primarily on the rules and procedures governing the recruitment, retention and professional development of the staff member. Systematic training of staff was reserved for senior officers, while a large number of intermediate and lower level employees were sporadically trained, as appropriate. With the adoption of the CP approach to improve public goods and service delivery by the NSGF, the training of civil servants based on the needs, regular and systematic became a critical concern (Adebayo, 2008). To transform the public service, Oyedele, (2016) opined that the government has adopted a strategic approach to HRM. This approach considers the individual as a vital resource to be evaluated, motivated, developed and enabling ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) to fulfill their mandates and accompanying objectives. In this transformation process, it is essential to match an individual's skills with the jobs he or she needs to do and to fill skills gaps for current and future roles through training (Oyedele, 2016). The GSA recognizes the contributions of employees to the improvement and maintenance of excellent service delivery. It also recognizes that in order to maintain a skilled and committed workforce, it must ensure that adequate training and development is provided to all employees; especially in this period of increased wait for effective and responsive governance (Adedeji, 2010). In addition, Idahosa, (2015) asserted that the State of Anambra predicts that by 2025 it will be the model state of Nigeria and a safe, functional and productive global, economic and financial hub. For this dream to become a reality, a professional and dynamic workforce will be needed to implement government policies and programs and ensure that resources are managed with prudence and transparency (Idahosa, 2015). This training and development policy will provide a framework that will ensure that the government invests appropriately in its staff to ensure more efficient and effective delivery of public goods and services and that learning and development management mechanisms Are more solid (Lathan, 2014). A skilled and competent workforce is needed to implement the new Anambra State Development Plan (AnSDP). This training and progress coverage will support to obtain the objective of the AnSDP to place in place "improving the skills and general competence of staff in basic skills in the public service" (Oyedele, 2016).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Each organization, regardless of size, or service, must recruit workers most especially to fill vacancies. The efficiency and effectiveness of any workplace whether the private sector or the public sector largely depends on the quality and competence of the workforce.
However, the quality of the staff of an organization is one of the factors that determine how the organization will succeed in terms of achieving its goals of increasing productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. One of the most effective ways to ensure a high level of performance in any organization is the recruitment of skilled and motivated employees. A well-articulated recruitment of skilled personnel will result in increased productivity, increased morale, reduced supervision, efficiency, effectiveness, increased organizational stability and flexibility. On-going training can also help employees develop their ability to adapt to new working methods, learn to use various types of equipment and adapt to major changes in job content and job relationships. Despite the importance of recruitment in achieving the goals set by the organization, it is usually observed that workers are not only recruited on merit, but also on criteria other than merit. The nature of the recruitment and selection of civil servants in the public service has not been well articulated to ensure recruitment and selection policy.
Given that, there are also problems of lack of qualified staff and poor administration of the day-to-day activities of the Civil Service Commission that are caused by poor management, lack of sufficient funds to achieve its development objectives in all its ramifications. All the activities of any company are initiated and determined by the people who make up the institution. Therefore, the general inefficiency, inefficiency and decline of productivity in the public service are probably caused by inadequate recruitment methods in the employment of workers and the absence of clear human resources targets.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to determine the effect of recruitment method on Anambra State Civil Service Commission 2005-2016.
The objectives or need of this study are:
- To investigate if the recruitment policies of Anambra State Civil Service Commission are well carry out or not.
- To determine recruitment methods available in the council Anambra State Civil Service Commission as regard the upshot of staff recruitment on quality service delivery
- To identify the problems associated with the recruitment method of staff and choice of the workers.
- To find out the effect of principle in the recruitment of civil servants in Anambra State regarding the attitude of staffs towards work
1.4 Research Questions
- Are the recruitment policies of Anambra State Civil Service Commission well carried out?
- What recruitment methods are available in the Anambra State Civil Service Commission as regard the upshot of staff recruitment on quality service delivery?
- What are the problems associated with the recruitment method of staff and choice of the workers?
- What are the effect of principle in the recruitment of civil servants in Anambra State regarding the attitude of staffs towards work?
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
H0: Recruitment policies of Anambra State Civil Service Commission are not well carried out
H1: Recruitment policies of Anambra State Civil Service Commission are well carried out
H0: There are no problems associated with the recruitment method of staff and choice of the workers?
H1: There are problems associated with the recruitment method of staff and choice of the workers?
1.6 Significance of the study
The importance of the study is for the research study to show the weakness of the recruitment of the staff of the Anambra State Civil Service Commission and to suggest other ways to improve the recruitment of staff for a Better comparison of their service delivery.
Replenishment of human resources is an essential activity for most modern organizations. It is considered a problem because underutilization or overexploitation of resources could lead to the liquidation of any business or organization.
The effectiveness of any organization in the delivery of services could be caused mainly by recruiting staff a major problem in achieving an organizational goal of the public enterprise and private organization owned. It is therefore necessary to study the matter in order to improve the recruitment of staff
1.7 Scope of the study
The research study was carried out on the mode of operation or operations in relation to the recruitment of staff and other institutions involved in the recruitment of staff, ie the civil service Anambra state with all the roles of the Anambra Public Service Commission and probably suggesting a solution to inadequacy and problems.
1.8 Limitations of the study
As much as researches wished-for to conduct detailed work on this study, conducting the field study was limited by certain factors. Constraints such as shortage of funds, time factors that the researcher would have other educational things to deal with and finally red-tapisms are the limitation envisioning this study.
1.9 definitions of terms
- Recruitment: This involves seeking and obtaining the potential candidate in sufficient number and quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate to fulfill its job needs.
- Civil Service: The public service is an indispensable service through which the government implements its policies and programs.
- Civil Service Commission: The Civil Service Commission is an executive body created by the Constitution to guarantee its autonomy and political neutrality.