1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER
Nigeriais blessed by nature with a lot of natural resources amongst which, water is one of them. WHO (1976) confirmed thatNigeriawas blessed with abundant water resources, the excess of which has been floods and erosion in many parts of the country. However, the distribution of this water resources was not evenly spread over the country. Life and other agricultural activities every year irrespective the drought that frequently occur in the northern part of the country of course man had been obtaining water for domestic and other purposes since man’s creation.
Water supply can therefore be said to be as old as man itself. Inspite of the availability of this water resources, WHO (1976) maintained that its supply to be majority of the population especially the rural area is every much inadequate.
Ilo (1993), affirmed that whenever a communally rural or urban exists, that these is already a supply of some sort, otherwise, there would not bare been people residing. He noted that rural water supply covers a wide category of schemes. Anambra state of Nigeria Edict No. (1978) simply defines rural water supply as a wide category of schemes ranging from a well width buckets supplying water to a few isolated huts to river pumping schemes from such or simple treatment as communal stand pipes to tap in individuals homes and provisions for livestock and vegetable garden Ilo (1973) however stated that various traditional means of obtaining water has been developed by individuals and communities for many centuries and that some of these systems were very much in use by various communities both rural and urban, in Anambra State and indeed, Nigeria he however maintained that the rural water supply may be inadequate in quantity. Dangerous to health, inconvenient and unreliable but basically “water is there and is being used”
The United Nations Economic Commission for African (1973) confirmed that it was only about 20% of the populations ofNigeriathat have access to potable water supply. It further stated that have access to people are those that are living in the urban and semi-urban areas of the country and that even the privilege places that have access to such facilities were not being served sufficiently. This is the need for the provision of adequate water supply and sanitation is highly appreciated. And this has promoted the choice of the topic on the management and operational problems of rural water supply inNigeria. A case study of water corporationEnugu, with a view to recommend solution which if accepted would help to solve these and as well, facilitate to the alleviation of the suffering of the people. Water corporation was established as a parastatals under Anambra State of Nigeria Edict N0. 16 of 1978. the corporations was originally charged with the statutory responsibility of supplying drinking water to all the urban as well as the rural communities of old Anambra State. It was formally the water section of the then East Central State Ministry responsible of works and housing. The General Manager is responsible for the day to day running of the corporation, while the board of directors the commissioner of the controlling ministry in the absence of the governing board, is responsible for policy matters only operating eleven (11) zonal offices in the state including Enugu he stated that the corporation is principally maintained from government subventions and budget allocation for capital projects and from internally generated revenues, water tariffs, sale of metres fees etc for its day to day operations.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
Enuguas a growing industrial and commercial town has been without adequate supply of potable water. This potable water supply inadequacies being experienced in the rural communities ofEnuguhave been brought about by many factors. Despite the huge sums of money being sunk into these rural water supplies, yet water is still very inadequate.
- It has been difficult for the society to understand the extent of the aims and objectives for setting up the water corporation.
- Another problem is weather the resources both human and material are adequate.
- The attitude of water consumers has also constitute a problem.
- The instability in government constant changes in leadership is another problem.
- That has been a problem to understand that of the rural consumers.
1.3 PROBLEMS THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
The purpose of this research project on the management and operational problems of rural water supply in Nigeria, a case study of water corporation Enugu is to investigate;
- The extent to which the aims and objectives of rural water supply programme are being achieved inNigeriawith particular reference toEnugurural communities.
- To find out the extent of adequacy and suitability of materials and human resources for change in rural water supply programmeEnugu.
- The characteristics of rural households with respect to their domain for and use of water and the rural water supply.
- The extent to which the change in government and leadership affects the study water supply.
- To find the extent to which the management and operation problems affects the functionality of the rural water supply services inNigeriawith respect toEnugu
1.4 THE IMPORTNAC OF STUDYING THE AREA
The scope of this study is water corporationEnuguand specially the management operational problems of rural water supply.
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
To guide the study five research questions were formulated.
They include the following:
- What are the characteristics of rural householder?
- To what extent are the aims and objectives of rural water supply programmes being achieved inNigeria?
- How adequate and suitable are the materials and human resources for change in rural water supply programme inEnugu.
- To what extent does the management and operational problems affects the functions of rural water supply service inEnugu.
- To what extent does the changes in government and leadership affect the management of water corporationEnugu?
Agu C.C. (1983) Rural Economy, Enugu University Press Ltd.
Onyekaba G.N. (1993) Organisaiton and Management of ENSWCEnugu
Ekenta O.E. (1998) Problems and Prospects ofEnuguStateWater