1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The most important human activities is leadership questions and motivation, ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims, they could not achieve their aims as individuals. Leadership has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. A society has come to rely increasingly on group efforts and as many organized group have become large, the task of leaders has been rising in importance.
Leadership we know have no universal definition some leadership scholars have defined it according to their views.
Therefore leadership could be seen as a social influencing process for the attainment of goals. A leader is the most influential person in an organization who provides direction, guides group activities and ensures that group objectives are attained (Nwachukwu, 1999:146) furthermore he saw leadership as a process where one person exerts social influence over the members of a group.
Motivation are those various reason why people work, may be to earn respect among associate to earn salary and wages to acquire prestige and honour. In all these variety of reasons, culture seems to be a determing factor what actual make the between healing and sick organization and the worker. According to Howell and Dipboye (1982) they mostly depends on organization ability to discover sustain and meet the workers need.
Therefore motivation can be seen as what ever thing that makers a person to bring out his or her best.
Management is the process of utilizing resources of a firm that accomplish designated objectives.
111. PROFILE OF UNION BANK PLC, ABA
Union Bank of Nigeria Plc was established in 1917 as a colonial Bank with its fist branch in Lagos. In 1925, Bardays Bank acquired the colonial Bank, which resulted in the change of the Bank’s name to Bardays Bank (Dominion colonial and overseas). Following the enactment to be incorporated locally, Barclays Bank (D.C.O) in 1969 was incorporated as Barclays Bank of Nigeria Limited. The ownership structure of Bardays Bank emained un-changed until 1971 when 8.33% of the Banks shares were offered to Nigerians in the same year, the Bank was listed on the Nigerian stock exchange. As a result of the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Act of 1972, the federal government of Nigeria acquired 51.67% of the Bank shares, which left Bardays Bank Plc, London with only 40%. By the enactment of the 1972 and 1977 Nigeria Enterprises promotion Acts, Bardays Bank International disposed its share holding to Nigeria in 1979. To reflect the new ownership structure and in compliance the name Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.
Union Bank Group operates an interlocking organizational structure whereby some board members of union Bank of Nigerian Plc act as external directors in subsidiaries and associated companies. This arrangement, ensures effective oversight and participation in the decision making process of these companies thereby safeguarding the Banks investments.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Management of organization have over the years been faced with a lot of problems which have in one way or the other hindered organizational growth and development some of these problems could be seen as follow: indiscipline of workers, high rate of absenteeism, high labour turn-over, job irritability, lack of motivation and reduced productivity.
INDISCIPLINE OF WORKER: This has contributed a lot to the problems of organizations. Some workers have been found in the habit of disobeying simple instructions from their superiors, which in one way or the other jeopardize organizational growth and development.
HIGH RATE OF ABSENTEEISM:- The rate at which workers absent themselves from duty without permission from the appropriate authority for reasons best known to them have really pose a problem on management of organizations.
HIGH LABOUR TURN OVER:- The rate at which people go out of an organization (skilled and unskilled workers) is also a problem which have retard productivity in many organizations.
JOB IRRITABILITY: This may come as a result of tiredness of the job, due to lack of enthusian on the said job. This is also a problem to organization.
Lack of motivation:- eg low pay, poor performance appraisal lack of staff training and lack of staff promotion will retard workers from doing their work effectively and efficiently since their efforts are not rewarded as at when due.
REDUCED PRODUCTIVITY: This is also a problem to management of organization. When productivity is reduced, an organization tends to suffer.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The researcher tends to find out the effects of leadership and motivation in management of organizations she find out this research work in order to know the effect of autocratic and laisser faire styles of leadership on workers productivity and how best to boast employees morale and increase their sense of belonging which in turn will lead to increased productivity in organization. She tends to discover how best leadership and motivation will minimize the problems encountered by organizations. This study aims at determing the clausable course and effect relationship by observing existing consequences and then reflecting back on the data so collecting clause able courses e.g A researcher. Who wants to find out the effect of class size on the performance of students should compare the class size of some years and corresponding the over all performance of the class for several group, this involves an investigation past event, development and experiment. Investigation comprises a thorough evaluation and analysis of evidences in order to establish facts.
One which sees to abstain how some dimension valuables or characteristics of a given population change with time. The study attempts to describe the nature and degree of growth maturity and valuations in behaviours among members of the group.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project tends to answer the following questions.
1) What are the effect of leadership and motivation on management of organizations?
2) Does the type of leadership practiced affect employees morale and consequently their output
3) Is there any effect of employee’s behavior on organizational productivity?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is a proposition assumed for the sake of argument or a theory to be proved or disproved by to facts. It is an assumed answer to a problem. It is also a guide to a research work.
H01: Lack of motivation in organization does not lead to low productivity.
H02: The type of leadership an organization practiced does not affect employee’s morale and their output.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work lends creduce to this exercise. It serves as an enlightenment to management of organizations on how best to boost the morale of their employees through motivation which in turn increases their sense of belonging and their output. This work will also serve as a panacea to management of organizations in arriving at dependable solutions to management consultants. This work will serve as a guide to political leaders on the type of leadership style they will adopt, which will faster peace and stability in the society.
This work will serve as a guideline for future researchers to critically examine the concept of leadership and motivation on effective management f organization. This work is also significant to the researcher for the fulfillment f the award of the High National Diploma.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work is restricted to the office of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Aba branch. It is limited to the effect of leadership and motivation in management of organization. All thing been equal, the researcher would like to cover as much area as possible but it is impossible because of some circumstances, which was beyond his control.
The constraints could be seen as follows: Finance, lack of time due to the tight schedule of academic calendar, unwillingness of some of the respondents to answer questions, posed by the researcher, rainfalls which restricted the researchers movement and act of God. All these place limitation on the extent the researcher can go.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1) Motivation: Can be defined as a process of the reason one does or behaves in a particular way. He is motivated entirely by self interest. To make what to do especially that involves hard work and effort.
2) Organizational: Can be defined as a group of people who from a business, club, etc. together in order to achieve a particular aim. To work for a business (political) voluntary organization, the world health organization. He’s the president of a large international organization.
3) Leadership: It state or position of being a leader. Leadership it is the ability to be a leader or the qualities a good leader should have: leadership qualities / skills, strong leader is needed to captain the team. A group of leaders of a particular organization, etc.
4) Growth: It is the process (of people animals or plants) the process of growing physically, mentally or emotionally, lack of water will stunt the plant’s growth. Remove dead leaves to encourage new growth a concern with personal (mental and emotional) growth and development, growth hormones designed to make grow faster.
5) Management: The term management has been used in different way’s to describe an essential aspect of organizational activities which determine how people should work and the materials to be used in achieving organizational goals.
6) Business: The term business has been generally defined as an occupation, task or duty which a person undertakes to earn a living.
7) Economic system: The economic system determines the pattern of ownership of factors of production and economic resources and the production and distribution of goods and services.
8) Organizing: Is defined as involving the determination of activities to be performed in order to achieve goals.
9) Communication: Is the medium through which information is passed. In essence, to communicated is to pass information. Information is anything that reduces or eliminates the uncertainty in any given situation. Information is needed by everyone working in an organization to do his or her duty very well.
10) Information system: Is a set of resources man, materials and procedure defined to attain information goals within a socio-economic environment which produces and utilizes the system as tool for development (Hayes, 1975)..