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          The industrial revolution of the mid 18th century significantly changed the world of work by introduction machinery. Work moved away from being predominantly agricultural (based on peasantry and tendal land tenures) to factors labor truly became a commodity as workers received only wages for their efforts

          The factory system of production needs four categories of inputs: money to finance operation, machines to produce goods and services, men to operate the machines and managements to put every other thing together. Machines are complex pieces of equipment which a worker has to master to operate. The worker operating machines is usually not the inventor or designer, (like under the domestic or craft system of production). The skill with which a worker operates a machine affected the efficiency of production and the safety and health of the worker.

          The situation arises because factory work involved machines that worked at considerable high speeds and which can infeflict injures if great acre is not taken. Also the factory system requires workers to work at a position or within a limited area, doing what are commonly monotonous tasks.

          Attention can easily wave when work is monotonous and a person who works at a point (like assembly line worker) may be subjected to physical and physical ecological strain and stress. When this is combined with the speed of operation of machines, the producer of management health and safety becomes easy to appreciate.

          There are many definition of the work accident psychologists Arbous A.G and Kerrick J. consider that “in a chain of events each of which is planned or controlled, there occurs an unplanned event which is termed accident”

          Schulzinger (1978) also regards accidents as sudden, unplanned and uncontrolled event.

          Perhaps a simple definition of an industrial accident is “a mishap resulting in damage to property and or injury or death to person”. It will so far be considered for this research so as to enable us have a quick examination of some of the factors causing occupational or industrial and diseases.


          Accidents are mishaps and may result in damage to property and or injury or death to persons whilst accidents are unplanned for, their adverse effects can be managed by industrial safety programs. Principal items in an industrial safety program include, Engineering a stage machine and operating manual, educating all employees to act safety deeply accurate record of operational accidents ill-health, a injures and deaths, accident analysis safety contests and enforcing the release (flip, 1980)

          Employee morale impacts on productivity the better the morale, the higher the productivity. Industrial accidents reduce productivity (and actual reduce production). It can be inferred that boosting morale can reduce accidents.

          Facility design and layout contribute to employee morale. Besides morale equipments failure reduces productivity and increase industrial accidents.

          We can therefore say that  there are tow categories of causes of industrial accidents technical and human. Technical causes are connected with deficiencies in factories, machine tool, materials, and the general working environment. On the other hand, human causes are connected with deficiencies in the individual. Such as improper attitudes carelessness, recklessness, inability to perform the job, day-dreaming alcoholism and the use of the drugs on the job.

          It is estimated that out of five accident in industry are caused by human deficiencies (flip 1980). When accidents occur damage, injury of death may result, each of these involve some form of cost both direct and indirect.

          There are some problem associated in NB PLC 9th mile cornerEnugu and they are as follows.

1. ILLITERACY: The majority of the workers are half educated ones and many don’t know when information was sending and what it talks about.

2. Some managers are disillusioned because major decisions effecting their departments are taken without them was being contracted

3. OVER LOADING:    The overloading of the machines causes accidents.

4. Bad construction and design of machine

5. NOISE:   There are relationship between noise and accidents rate but evidence in support of this is not over whelming.


          This is designed to

  1. Find out the causes, effects and preventions of accident in industries with particular reference to the Brewering industry.
  2. This study will also try to find out whether there are adequate safety provisions in the companies in this industries.
  3. Whether lack of safety presume was one of the major causes of industrial accidents.


          The research is on the causes, effects and prevention of industrial accidents for workers. This study will restricted to NBPLC Ninth mile cornerEnugu. This is allow a decisive and detailed analysis.

          For the fact that sthe population is fairly large. The researcher would study part of it and in this connection 100 questionnaire would be distributed among the work force.


  1. In what ways can the management prevent or reduce the rate of accident in the industries.
  2. indicate your status in the organization.
  3. What types of accident normally come up in your industry.
  4. Have you personally have an accident before.
  5. If yes how did you experience it
  6. Does safety program exist in this company
  7. Which department has more accidents recorded.
  8. Which machine(s) has the highest accident record
  9. What is your opinion is /are the causes of these accidents
  10. Have the causes of these accident now been removed.
  11. Which of these causes worries your mind the most
  12. Before you were employed, were you informed of the dangers of working in this company.
  13. When some workers in your unit have accident how does it affect work
  14. How does it affect sales and profit
  15. Do you think safety device is enough in this company.


          The importance of the study is in many folds, this study will reveal to management of industries the various methods of handling employee in a manufacturing outfit and the effect of such method on labor turnover. This study will also reveal to many industries the types of employee and welfare. The fcat that some employee in the industry do not arise out of frustration which in turn is a result of an amalgamation of factors which can only be isolated by patient and skillful management. This study will be useful to heads of department of human resources of various industries in handling problem that arises in thir industries and in checking labor turnover as a result of such problem.

          Finally, recommendation made from the study would lead to a better handling of problem when they occur in the industries which would  therefore reduce labor turnover.


          The researcher encountered some difficulties in the course of carrying out this research work, notably they include firstly

          The incorporative attitude of many respondents many though that the researcher have something to with information given considering the sensitive nature, other than fore academic purpose.

          Secondly, it is difficult for the researcher to collect data from some employee of organization of the case study.

          Finally, the constraints also contributed immensely to limit the extent to which data are collected. Time constraints contributed to a measurable extent to the assumptions made because the researcher is working to beat the time stipulated for this work.

          Despite these constraints the researcher endeavored with great patience and determination acquired the amount of information that enable her to produce this work which is hoped could make some contribution for future study research in this field.


          According to Luther Guluck on his own defined management as a field of knowledge that seeks to systematically understand why and how men work together systematically to accomplish objectives and make these cooperative system more useful to mankind.

EMPLOYEE:      Any person who enters into a contract employment to offer his labor for wages.

WELFARE:        The well being happiness health and organized effort for the welfare of poor and disabled ones in the company

PRODUCTIVITY:       Rate of output per man hour of work volume output in relation to input.

LABOR TURNOVER:          Is the term given to the measurement employee leaving a company and their replacement


Ghiseller, E. (1963)                 Management Talent,  4th Ed. New York, McgGraw Hall Book Company

Safegaurd magazine (1988)     “Management on Industrial safety”

Horab A.                                 “dvanced Learners Dictionary of Current’ 3rd Edition.