1.1 Background of the Study
Domestic waste or household waste is the waste generated by households. It must be discerned from municipal solid waste, which is the waste collected by the municipal collection system. Domestic waste can be divided mainly into paper and cardboard, glass, plastic, organic fractions, hazardous waste and bulky waste (Giusti 2002). Giusti (2002) described further that domestic wastes are useless, unwanted or discarded materials resulting from everyday items that man consumes and discards. It predominantly includes food wastes, yard waste, containers and product packaging , and other miscellaneous inorganic waste. Example of inorganic household waste are appliances, newspapers, clothing, food scrapes, boxes, disposable tableware, office and classroom paper, furniture, wood pallets, rubber tires and cafeteria wastes. Others include medication, paints, chemical, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer, pesticide container, butteries, shoe polish etc,
According to Datol (2005), Daily household and commercial activities generated around 400kg of waste per person in 1996. This included both mixed household rubbish and separately collected waste such as paper and glass factor in the trend towards increased waste generation since 1996 and it becomes clear that the 300kg limit will not be reached without significant cuts in household waste generation. He added that as household activities increase so would the generation of refuse or waste increases especially in the urban communities.
It would not occur that waste generation and disposal being reduced in 1998-2003 over 822 millions tones in UK and other part of African countries, the mean reduction of daily household and commercial waste in cities have increased significantly, which demands for effective domestic waste control and management. Domestic waste generation and disposal is hazardous to human health, which need the use of technology for proper management. Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health and environment. Waste management is also carried out to discover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. The more solid, liquid and gaseous waste generated daily, the more professional personnel and technologies needed for effective domestic waste management (Okafor 2002).
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibilities of local government authorities while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibilities of the generator (Emehorale, 2000).
Integrated waste management using Life cycle analysis (LCA) attempts to offer the most acceptable options for waste management. For mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration, then source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost /fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via an aerobic digestion to be the favored path. Non-metallic waste resources are not destroyed as v with incineration, and be reused/recycled in a future resource depleted society. Some domestic and chemical waste generated and disposed of can be recycled and processed chemically as useable products. This also involves productive waste management (Kola 2008)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Visit to some corners and areas in Uyo metropolis revealed that domestic and commercial waste generated from food items, broken glasses, plastics, shop and restaurant refuse/waste, hazardous waste and bulky waste are heaped on road sides and some are dumped in the gutters indiscriminately. This creates rooms for the breeding of vector and rodents such as rats, mosquitoes, flies and has facilitated the spread of communicable
diseases like cholera and malaria among the urban dwellers. The worst of it all that urban dwellers have shown ignorant attitude to proper disposal and management of domestic waste
A closed observation of Uyo metropolis indicated that management of domestic waste disposal is poor, because the government has not provided better technologies as seen in developed cities for effective control of waste. Technologies are needed to improved upon waste generation and management procedure. Again community dwellers have not been enlightened in respect of control, management and hazardous waste generation and disposal.
1.3 Aim /Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the level of a domestic waste generation and management patterns in Uyo Metropolis while the specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the level of the domestic waste generation in Uyo Metropolis. .
2. To examine the influence of poor domestic waste management on the health of the people.
3. To investigate the relationship between levels of domestic waste generation and socio – economic characteristic of the people.
4. To evolve a model for efficient domestic waste management in Uyo Metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions used for this study:
1. What is the level of the domestic waste generation in Uyo Metropolis?
2. To what extent does poor domestic waste management affect human health?
3. What is the relationship between the level of domestic waste generation and socio – economic characteristic of the people?
4. What model could enhance efficient domestic waste management on human health in Uyo Metropolis?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
Below are the research hypotheses of this study:
1. There is no significant influence of poor domestic waste management on human health.
2. There is no significant relationship between amount of waste generated and socio-economic characteristics of the people.
1.6 Significance of the Study
A study of domestic waste generation and management is of great importance to the government in the sense that it informs the local government of its social responsibilities in the provision of better waste management technologies and tool for effective or proper waste control and management
Also the findings of this study will serve as channel of enlightenment to the urban dwellers who generate and dispose domestic waste indiscriminately. This with help to improve on disposal of waste knowing that it bring hazard to human health.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to Uyo metropolis in Akwa Ibom State. However, only domestic wastes will be included in the study..