1.1 Background to the Study
The school is an academic environment where individuals are educated and trained in different fields of study for the development of the individuals and the society.
Principal is the administrator of secondary school in Akwa Ibom State. He or she is expected to bring together students, teachers and parents teachers association as a family as well as implementing government policy on education and school rules regulations so that the goals of the school at this level will be achieved. The researcher wish to uncover certain variables (correlates) of administrative effectiveness of secondary school principal in Akwa Ibom State.
As early as 1842, when the first secondary school was established by the church missionary society (CMS) in Lagos, the office of the principal was established. Each voluntary agency that established the secondary school also choose a principal who could achieve both the religious and the academic functions of the school. For many years the secondary school principal kept his role as the instructional leader of the school. (Mbipom 1983).
The learning process is usually expected to produce impressive results provided the school possesses the relevant administrative and professional atmosphere favourable for effective teaching and learning. This is because the administrative efficacy of the school leadership promotes achievement of the students.
The role and status of the secondary school principal has changed through the years. To this end Udo, Akpa and Grang (1990) identify the responsibilities of the present day school principal to include:
1. The preparing the annual budget of the school.
2. Liaising between the school and educational agencies and organizations.
3. Co-ordinating Parents Teachers Association activities
4. Initiating Innovations.
5. Supervising the activities of all school functionaries
6. Designing of the physical plant of the school.
7. Organizing the school curriculum and its contents.
8. Selecting textbooks, materials and equipment.
9. Determining of services to aid the teaching and learning activities.
10. Maintaining effective lines of communication within the school and with outside agencies.
11. Maintaining a high level of discipline and policy formulation governing curricular and co-curricular activities.
12. Reporting school defects either in terms of infrastructure or personnel to the appropriate authorities for rectification (P.13)
In a study carried out by Mbipom (1983) to determine the role of female secondary school administrators and their roles as perceived by the members of the post primary school management board, it was reported that the role of the administrator of secondary school in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States are in the following order of importance:
1. Staff development
2. Finance and budgets
3. Public relations and the community
4. Instructional Development
5. Students welfare
According to Bossert (1982) their duties covered monitoring of instruction, this duty increased along with their responsibilities to help teachers improve their teaching. With this change in responsibilities, principals discovered the need to more effectively evaluate instruction and assist teachers as they worked to improve their instructional techniques.
Berhling and Champion (1984) outline some of the perceived duties of the principal as follows:
· The creation and implementation of a shared vision,
· The nurturing and sustaining of a culture and instructional program conducive to learning and staff development,
· The ensuring of the management of school operations to produce a safe and effective learning environment,
· The promotion of integrity, fairness and ethical behavior, and
· Interaction with larger political, social, legal and cultural context of schooling. (p.112).
Andrew and Bassom (1990), found that the unique position principals hold, as the number one person in the school who is responsible for and empowered to oversee the entire school, places them in a powerful position to coordinate the entire school operation. Nwabueze (1995) says, a good and qualitative leadership of schools is responsible for overall academic achievement of students in a school. If the school leadership is poor, the output of the students would be poor, on the other hand, if the leadership is good, then the students academic outcome will be good.
Jacob (1973), asserts that, the effectiveness of a school is largely dependent upon the type of leadership or administration of the school.
According to Redfern (1980), the principal can either exhibit a directive behaviour or guiding- behavior. Based upon the directive behaviour; staff reaction will either be resistive, thereby creating a frictional environment between the principal and the staff. This could make it impossible to achieve the target or goal of the school. In the second part, if the principal exhibits a guiding-behaviour, this could result to an unreserved cooperation on the part of the staff, teachers would put in more of their talents targeted at positive result oriented processes.
(a) Redfern (1980) implies that a qualitative school depends on the effectiveness of the school administrator or leader, and this depends upon the administrative or leadership style employed by the school principal. A survey conducted by Blau and Scott (1963) and adopted by Edem (1987) in identifying various behaviour patterns that characterize leadership styles, grouped behaviour pattern under following :
(1) Authoritarian – directive or compelling in approach,
(2) Laissez – fair – relaxed control with a tendency to induce indiscipline in the school system, and
(3) Democratic leadership- Person and task- oriented, participative and non-directive.
Overwhelmingly, educationists support the application of democratic leadership in the school system. In effect the democratic style of leadership makes for effective self-expression, creativity, group interaction between the principal, his staff and the students.
Black and Mouton (1964) among a number of other educational experts support the use of democratic leadership in school administration for the harmonious interpersonal relationship that it promotes.
Blau and Richard (1993) states that, an ideal organization is a place where highly motivated people come together to attain predetermined objectives. A good leader is the personnel who work for the production of an ideal organization. According to Anderson (1988) the qualities of good leadership involve “having the ability to lead and to be devoted to achieving the goals of the organization”. He should be committed to his responsibilities of managing both man power and material resources. Carter (1975) went further to enumerate the qualities of any good successful leader as follows: “A leader should have sufficient level of intelligence to make wise decisions and to command the respect of sub-ordinates, he should have confidence in making firm decisions, he must be innovative and he should be highly motivated towards the achievement of objectives of the group”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The school principal is an administrator and a leader. For any school to achieve it objectives, good quality leadership cannot be over-emphasized. It is noted that truancy, consuming problems of cult, general indiscipline among the students, decrease in commitment to duty by teachers, poor tone between the school and community has assumed frightening proportion in private Secondary Schools in Awka South, (1993).
Several explanations for this problem has been deduced by some observers. Some say that it is caused by the cumulative actions of government which has tended to undermine education and teaching profession, others tend to believe that it is the ineffectiveness of Secondary School administrators that may be the real cause of the problem.
According to Jacobs, (1973), the effectiveness of a school is largely dependent upon the type of leadership or administration predicated by the personal factors of private secondary school principals in Awka south.
The researcher wish to find out if there are (factors, variables/correlates) which could account for managerial effectiveness of private secondary school principal in Awka south local government in Anambra State such as staff regular promotion, staff training and retraining, staff regular payment of salary/ allowance?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1. To examine the relationship between staff regular promotion and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
2. To examine the relationship between training and retraining and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
3. To examine the relationship between regular payment of staff salary/allowance and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
1.4 Research Questions
4. What is the relationship between staff regular promotion and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South?
5. What is the relationship between training and retraining and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South?
6. What is the relationship between regular payment of staff salary/allowance and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South?
1. There is no significant relationship between staff regular promotion and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
2. There is no significant relationship between training and retraining and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
3. There is no significant relationship between regular payment of staff salary/allowance and the managerial effectiveness in Private secondary schools in Awka South.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Every research study undertaken is not done in isolation, but for a purpose; as it may have a positive contribution to both the academic field and the society at large. This study therefore, is not an exception, thus significant in many ways, it may increase the researcher orientation and knowledge of the subject area.
This study is expected to be of immense help to the government, school administrators and policy makers. It may also be of help to improve the administrative effectiveness of principals in our secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.
The result of this study is expected to provide data for planning, as well as provide additional stock of secondary schools data for other researchers, who might find it relevant and useful in their enquiries.
The study will fill the gap of knowledge of what has not been done by the past researchers who conducted almost similar study. The researcher will offer to the solution of some practical or theoretical problems.
1.7 Scope of the Work
The present study seeks to examine the relationship Between Motivation and Managerial Effectiveness. However, it delimited to Private secondary schools in Awka South local government area of Anambra State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study.