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 1.0            INTRODUCTION

This chapter examines the current state of higher education in developing countries, and considers the new realities these countries face and how they are reshaping their response to Ongoing challenges. In the past decades, developing countries have witnessed a rapid expansion of higher education, the simultaneous differentiation of higher education institutions into new forms, and the increasing importance of knowledge for social and economic development. We focus on issues affecting most developing countries, exceptions exist, but should not affect the main thrust of our argument. In subsequent chapters, we explore the strategies and initiative that are needed to meet these challenges.


Many of the problem involving higher education are roof in a lack of resources e.g. developing countries  spend far less than developed countries on each student. But finding new finds is not easy. Although absolute spending is low, developing countries are already spending a higher proportion of their (smaller) incomes than developed world on higher education. With public spending for education growing more quickly than income or total government spending. Higher education is clearly placing greater demands on public budgets, with the private sector and international donors taking up only some of the slack. Redirecting money from primary or secondary education is rarely on option, with spending per student on higher education already, considerably higher than is common at other levels of the education system.

In addition, capital and operating budgets are poorly coordinated often major new facilities are built,  but then are left with no funds for operation and maintenance. The developing world is littered with deteriorating buildings, inadequate libraries, computer laboratories that are rarely open and scientific equipment that cannot be used for want of supplies and parts. It is often impossible to carry over unspent found is for use in later years, and difficult to win a budget that is high than the previous year’s actual expenditure. This creates a user it or lose it environment, resulting in overspending and misspend resources.

The disappearance of research agenda from these universities ahs serious consequences. The inability to pursue research isolates the nation’s elite scholars and  scientists  leaving them unable to keep up with developments in their own fields. A research universities lose their ability to act as reference points for the rest of the education system countries quickly find it harder  to make key decision about the international issue affecting them.


 Higher education institutions clearly need well designed academic programs and a clear mission. Most important to their success, however, are high quality faculty, committed and well prepared students, and sufficient resources. Despite notable exceptions , most higher education institutions in developing of these area. As a result , few perform to a consistently high standard.


In many institutions, students face difficult conditions for study. Severely over crowded classes inadequate library and laboratory facilities, distracting living conditions, and few if any student services are the norm. the financial strains currently faced by most universities are making conditions even worse. Many students start their studies academically unprepared for higher  education poor basic and secondary education, combined with a lack of selection in the academic system, lie at the root of this problem yet rarely does an institution respond by creating remedial programs for  inadequately prepared students.

Cultural traditions and infrastructure limitations also frequently  cause students to study subjects such as humanities  and the arts, that offer limited job opportunities and lead to educated unemployment.  At the same time, there is often unmet demand for qualified science graduates, while in many societies woman study subjects that conform to their traditional roles, rather than courses that will maximizing their opportunities in the labor market. Better information on the labor market is needed, combined with policies that promote economic growth and labor absorption. Also, many educated people come from wealthier backgrounds and are able to resist taking jobs in locations they consider to be undesirable promoting an  entrepreneurial culture will encourage the creation of more productive jobs.

Students also face the widespread  requirement to choose their area of specialization early in their course, in some cases ahead of matriculation, once a choice is made, change is frequently difficult or even impossible. Scuh inflexibility close off option with students unable to sample courses in different academic areas. Early specialization can prevent costly in decisiveness,  but system that are unforgiving of early mistakes do not develop and unleash the true potential of many students.


A well-qualified and highly motivated faculty is critical to the quality of higher education institutions.  Unfortunately, even  at flagship universities in developing communities, many faculty members have little, if any, graduate level training. This limits the level of knowledge imparted to students and restricts the students ability to access existing knowledge and generate new ideas.

Teaching methods are often outmoded. Robe learning is common. With instructors doing little more in the classroom than copying their notes onto a blackboard. The students who are frequently unable to afford a textbook, must than transcribe the note into a notebook and those students who regurgitate a credible portion of their notes from memory achieve exam success. These passive world where engagement, participation, and discovery, rather than the passive absorption of facts.

Improving the quality of facility is made more difficult by the ill conceived incentive structure found in many developing countries. Faculty pay is generally very low in relation to that offered by alternative professional occupation. Pay increase are governed by bureaucratic personal   systems that reward long service rather than success in teaching or research. Market forces, which attempt to reward good  performance, are seldom used to determine pay in the higher education sector.


Education has traditionally been as an essential component  of both individual and social well being. A high school diploma was the  admission ticket to a good job and middle-class life style for an individual, and strong education system was usually credited as a major driver of economic activity.

Students face many difficulties for studying overcrowded classes, inadequate library and laboratory facilities, distracting living conditions and few, if any, student services are the norm. The financial strains currently faced by most universities are making conditions even worse.


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Rensis likert (1961) Quantitative Methods of Planning Students,Germany,

Kins Publisher’s p.12

Sam. R.K (1964) statisitics; An Introductory Analysis on Education 3rd Ed.                                  Norway, Harper (Pub) Pages 43-72.

 NTTP: WWW. Higher Education Org.