1.1 GENERAL BACK GROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER
In every society, the desire to solve the physiological and other needs of man have compelled people to form groups, corporate bodies or organizations with the intent to achieve this aim. This is what in the contemporary times, there is the presence of organizations such as markets churches, public service, educational institutions, transport service and the likes. All these and more different aim.
According to worsley (1977.305) “organisation are bodies persisting overtime, which are specifically set up to achieve specific aim” He went further to explain that political parties churches, public service, educational institutions etc are all organizations where people work for a livelihood. Some organizations have existed to facilitate production of goods, while some others do exist to render service in order to better the conditions of man. The man in our contemporary world is shape more and more by organizations which he has little or no control and coupled with the fact that because of various developments in the world we are living in what has been known as organization society people by man.
Consequently, organizations by their very nature bring together people of different and desire orientations and background in their bid to achieve stated goods. More often then not members of an organization may have individual goals which may stand in their way of submitting themselves to organizational goals and this may be counter productive. at that point, it may be said that personal interests have come into conflict with official aims. As noted by Adewumi (1992.1) a conflict situation is one in which there is no difference and divergence of particular issue or views and positions on particular issue or development “on the other hand, Thomas (1976.131)define conflicts as “a process which begins when one part perceive that the other has frustrated or is about to frustrated or is about to perceive that the other has frustrated or is about to frustrate some concern of his Nwankwo (1988.2) complemented this by asserting that conflict implies” any perceived (convert) or demonstrated (overt) difference of interest between groups or individuals or groups to the job and the condition or circumstances in which it is to Nwankwo, could be non-co-operation, strict adhere Nwankwo, could be non- cooperation, strict adhere to rules no matter the conditions absenteeism and general low turnover; while demonstrated conflict can be a political satotaye or actions. Thus in many organisation in spite of actions. Thus in many organisation in spite of the fact that the two groups (labour and management) are bonded by the common interest of rendering or producing goods/ services interest of rendering or producing goods/ services to the public events have proved that there is always a latent antagonism among them concerning the realization of these common interest and mutual desires.
In the opinion of Balogun (1992.1) social groups by their nature are infact characterized by conflict. This is so because aims objectives and interest of the social units (individuals that constitute any social groups differs. One psychological concept that make thus so is the self. Self is the totality of an individual as perceived by him in relation to his environment. This could be influenced by what, whom, how and why he seems himself to be what he is and what he wants to be a threat towards the hence the unavoidable conflict between individual and the perceived source of threat. This source could be another individual issue, policies behaviors of other people at Balogun (1992.1) explained that things to most people, connotes heyatire things or destruction phenomenon. However “this is not the case because conflict at times properly manage can be constructive. Some degree of conflict is necessary from time to time if only to help in bringing “life” to rather monotones and boring social life in any social group consequently, a higher institution like Enugu state university of science and technology (ESUT) is an organisation which is known in the world of literates as a citadel of knowledge which as it system as assemblage of intelligent men and women. Often time, conflicts here extend in this institution. These conflicts in some occasion have been between the management and the labour (i.e the workers) and sometimes between the government and the institution itself. Given the fact that the institution parades a bundle of intellectuals, these conflicts when they occur (or arise) where always intelligently and expertly managed the outside world were always taken a back at how these conflicts were quelled in this institution many times without interference many organizations in recent twins have either folded up, gore into obtirion or have had most of there workers thrown out because of the accuracy of conflicts in such organization. However, in Esut conflicts occur and re occur but at each occasion such conflicts are dealt with totally with and incredible equanimity by these at the helm of affairs in the institution as if higher institution has been able to handle such phenomena without any eternal arbiter. The researches believe that the secret behaving their ability to achieve such remarkable fault is dependent to a large extent on their expertise in conflict management. The ability to manage a conflict has been a major source of success for many organizations in this country. However, the questions in this country. However, the question them is what exactly is conflict management? And how far and to what extent can conflicts be management in organization especially higher institutions.
It is as a result of the above analogy and in response to the question posed that this study looked critically at the issue management of organizational conflicts in higher institutions with special references toEnugustateUniversityofScienceand Technology (ESUT)Enugu.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
The responsibility to maintain cordial relations. In an organization rests on the part to be played by the management. The staff and all the entire members of the organization, some workers in organizations have been known to have strained the relationship with those at the helm of affairs in their organizations. Most workers form cliques against the management in the organizations. Sometimes the management on their part tends to exploits the workers, pay less attention to their genuie requests or demands for one thing or the other. The workers, payless one thing or the other. There inability of the management and the workers to come to a compromise on certain issues usually result to inclement atmosphere pervading the entire organization, such type of situation usually bring and about coys in the wheel of progress and negates the purpose for which an organisation was established.
Organizational conflicts have been major catalyst for the collapse or failure of most organizations in the contemporary times. These conflicts come from different sources (1979.83) the aggressive impulse diverge of interest clash of values competitive and organizational tradition of an organizations is to be conflict prone, then it may retain that make obdurately, while it may retain that make conflict has not been a prominent feature may continue without it.
It is axiomatic that certain organizations in the country are much more extreme conflict in industrial relations than other. Indicators like the numbers of working days lost through strikes show a stable pattern of distribution. The nature of the conflicts can range between the extreme of pettiness secrecy, fear of insecurity on the head to regorons, opera and productive dabate on the other with my productive debate on the other with my organizations exhibiting neither. However what become a major concern to most people is that while some organisation. Find themselves in a very precisions state as .result of conflict, other have been able to hold time hands above waters and continue to forget ahead as through nothing has happened. The disparities in conflict situations help to identify a problem the importance of managing conflicts for organizations success.
It is as result of the above problem identified that this study dealt with the issue. Management of organizations conflicts in higher institution with special emphases. inEnugustateUniversityofScienceand Technology (ESUT)Enugu.
1.3 PROBLEMS THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
Experience has shown that an organizational conflict is an ill wind that blows no organization any good. It is important to mention that the essence of establishing academic institutional any good. It is important to mention that the essence of establishing academic institution and other organsiation it to enhance the intellectual ability of the citizenry, to encourage the development of the entire economy and to provide employment opportunities for the teeming played citizens. It is astigmatic to state that higher institutions in the country have witnessed spate of industrial strides in the past and recent times. However, while some of the had been able to settle conflict without mush ado, other had witnessed the attendant consequences of such conflicts. The objects of these studies are therefore aimed at.
- Examining the major cause of sources of organizational conflicts in organizations especially higher institutions.
- Identifying the major parties in organizational conflicts inNigeriahigher institutions.
- Finding out the strategies though which at the helm of affairs in organizations use to manage organizational conflicts.
- Finding out the strategies through which at the helm of affairs in organizations use to manage organizational conflicts.
- Identifying or examining conflicts to the achievement of academic objectives of our higher institutions.
- Examining the kind of relationship existing between the management and the workers inEnugustate university of science and Technology.
- Proffering solutions or suggestions through which the incessant strikes and other industrial disharmony in higher instruction could be amdiorated.
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA.
It is important to recall that this study death primary with the issue of management of industrial conflicts in higher institution with special reference to Enugu State University of Science and Technology ESUT,Enugu. It is not from the truth to state that no organisation can function effectively and efficiently when there is inclement atmosphere pervading the organisation. Therefore, this study is very significant because it helps to identify the factors responsible for incessant strike actions and other conflicts in our higher institutions. Consequently those at the helm of affairs lie. The management in our higher institution will benefit from study as it will afford them the opportunity of knowing how to use the ugly phenomenon anytime it occurs.
Also this study is very significant because it enables the researches to make proposition for the higher institutions so that harmony within their system, consequently both the institution under study (I.e. ESUT) and other higher institutions in the country will benefit immensely from the propositions.
This study is very significant because both the state and federal government will benefits from findings and subsequent recommendations since it will enable them (i.e. the governments) to have an idea of the major causes and sources of industrial conflicts in our academic environments and for this reason will create an enabling environment for ensuring a hitch –free academic atmosphere in all our higher institutions. Moreover, workers and the management in the institutions from this study because the finding of the research work will encourage to maintain a cordial relationship with both parties.
Finally, this study is very significant because (as the researchers believe) it serves as a stepping stone for other fellow students researchers especially those who may wish to research further on the subject matter in the future.
1.5 DEFINITIONS OF IMPORTANT TERMS
The following definition of terms simply represents the specific meaning(s) that will be these terms include.
This implies the degree to which an organisation attains its goals or the ability of the systems as a whole to effect intended results.
This is the ration between output and input an efficient operation has a higher out put ration, while a low ration denotes inefficiency in operation.
His is the acronym forEnugustate university of science and technology
This means lack of harmony or lack of harmony or lack of agreement in interest feelings or opinions.
In this context management refers to the process of utilizing the resources of an organisation to accomplish set objectives. And some other time it could be used to denote the human element at the helm of affairs in an organisation.
This is a situation whereby a particular worker is dissatisfied and complains formally to the appropriate authority. It also refers to real to imagine cause for complaint or protest.
This implies the situation whereby work cases as a final resort to press home the demands of labour (or workers)
This is an organized association of workers in an establishment for the preservation and protection of the worker interest..