1.1 Background of the Study
Individuals and the society have seem education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to impacting positively to the survival of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education.
Thus, Education is a behavioral characteristic. It impacts skills, attitudes, belief, ability to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills, it enable an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals destiny.
The influence of instructional aids in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of Economics in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
Economics as a subject came into existence in 1776 via the publication of Adam Smith - the protagonist of the classical school of thought; and since then, it has assumed many roles especially in both political and educational circles. The study of Economics is dichotomised into two major parts, namely microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics studies the behaviour and operations of the individual units (households, firms and government agencies) in the economy, macroeconomics studies the entire economy in aggregates and averages (Umoh, 2007).
According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in teaching and communicating Economic ideas. These languages include theory or verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or mathematical language.
Economics is an important subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially the university to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business Administration, Insurance, etc. The importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach it to the learners. This fact is supported by Macaulay (1989) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better.
It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance senior secondary school students performance in Economics. Poor academic achievement in Economics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of Economics concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of Economics without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (2002) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
Bassey (2002) opined that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of Economics in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.
Researchers such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.
Indeed, Instructional aids provides concepts and attitudes to the student which improved his skills, ability to reason and makes him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. Education has helped to bring the entire world into an entity through the information and knowledge education has helped us to achieve.
Education has helped to reduce the problem of language barrier. Through instructions and teaching by your teacher, Individual has acquired different languages outside the traditional language. This has led the individual to associate properly with people from different countries. It has helped one to adjust from his traditional behaviour to a more modest behaviour that makes the individual to be accommodated any part of the world he visits. Education has been a means to an end. That a country is developed is as a result of instructional aid created by education. It serves as a catalyst to governmental principles, policies and laws. With the acquisition of knowledge, and the society structured their means of livelihood.
Instructional material is an aid to teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional aids makes teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. It makes learning more effective (Clark, 2007).
Instructional aids means all materials that are designed for use by pupils and their teacher as a learning process and help pupils to acquire facts, or opinions to develop cognitive processes.
Instructional materials may be printed or non-printed and may include textbooks; technology based materials, other education materials and tests”.
Instructional aids was change in 2009 to include “technology-based on materials “ which in-turn are defined as including the “ electronics equipment” are utilized by pupils and teachers as a learning resources”. As the use of electronic media has become popular in recent years.
Instructional aids are kind of tools or equipment that can help effectively by the instrument; in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. It is also materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one of another. These are used in teaching at place like schools, colleges and tertiary institution.
Instructional aids are defined as those items that are designed to instruct student in the teaching or learning process regardless of delivery method and your format. Instructional materials may be consumable and expandable and include but are not limited to such item as charts, laits, textbooks, magazines, newspaper, pictures recording, slides, transparencies, video disc. Workbook and electronic resources such as software, CD-ROM and on the services. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching especially for in experienced teacher. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need materials for background information on the subject they are teaching. Teacher often use instructional materials or lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess their students by assigning task, creating projects and administrating exams. Instructional materials are essential for all these activities.
Instructional materials often provide innovative and creative ways to assess student’s performance. It is hard to imagine a teacher who is capable of teaching effectively without the accompaniment of instructional materials. Instructional materials are important because with them have a clear view of what is being taught.
Instructional materials in teaching are getting the attention of the student in the class is more realistic and it gives a view point on the point. Instructional material will help to present your help to catch the attention of your public.
In another development, the use of instructional aids makes different continents to shape their rules and regulations, to accommodate the other. This they do by providing them with the socio-cultural and political differences and how to adjust the traditional socio-cultural and political ways and accommodate another. An instructional material makes students understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working model. It makes the teachers task easier and more effective. Olardi (1990) has highlighted the impact of instructional aids that teachers use to improve the students from understanding and perception of the subject as an enhanced aids. It brings clarity and creates recognition that allow them to have a realistic hand and a total knowledge of the subject. It enhanced learning, improve the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students.
In Odeda Local Government Area, teaching and learning through the use of instructional materials facilitates, stimulates and aids students to take active interest in any topic introduced by the teaching. In structural materials has emotional effect on the students of Odeda Local Government Area and affects their attitude towards what is presented as the topic to study by the teacher. It provides both the teacher and students with relevance and meaningful source of information.
Kay (2008), Instructional materials stimulate the students desire to learn. It assist learning process by making assimilation and memorization of materials easy. Also, it helps to hold attention, include greater acquisition and, as well as objectives which may be in accessible to many students.
Finally, an instructional aids/material makes learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning, promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the subject content.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The use of instructional materials has lots of general benefits that guides a greater impact in teaching and learning process. The teachers level of resourcefulness, creativity, and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality education. These are expressed in how well the teacher is able to perceive, create and use the relevant information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities.
In Ogun State, there is a fair use of instructional materials which makes teaching and learning activities mere theoretical, abstract and ineffective. The issue of whether instructional materials provides the necessary knowledge is widely recognized in the central role the assimilation and retention of information it makes available to a wider audience.
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in Economics. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in Economics that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (2004) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials utilisation on teaching and learning.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose/role of instructional aid on the academic achievement of students in economics in some selected secondary schools in Odeda Local Government area of Ogun State.
1.4 Objectives of the study
The objectives of this study are:
- To examine the influence of instructional aidsutilization on the teaching of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda Local Government
- To ascertain the extent to which Senior Secondary School student’s learning of Economics can be influenced by the use of instructional aids
- To determine whether there will be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in Economics due to the use of instructional Aids.
4. To examine the use of instructional aids in teaching and learning economics influence cognitive performance of secondary school students?
5. To examine the use of inst.