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Chapter One


1.1    Background to the Study 

The freedom from danger, care intimidation, apprehension, the feeling or assurance of safety, peace of mind or absence of fear, and the certainty or assurance of the good life or welfare – constitutes one of the fundamental objectives and indeed the foremost responsibility of every government and the state. In Nigeria, the constitution unequivocally spelt out as a fundamental objective and directive principle of state policy that “the security and welfare of the people (of Nigeria) shall be the primary purpose of government” (Section 14 (2) (b) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999). Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. No wonder national security has become an issue for government, prompting huge allocation of the national budget to security. According to Azazi (2011), in order to check the crime rate in Nigeria, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the anti-terrorism Act in 2011, installation of computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at determining or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media. Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in Nigeria is still high and the country has been consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying poor state of insecurity in the country as indicated.

The term security has been used to mean protection against or safety from a future risk of severe deprivation, injury or death and requires rules, order and impartial adjudication and application. Security according to Achumba, Ighomereho & Akpo-Robaro (2013) refers to a situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measure for the protecting of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions. It is the existence of conditions within which people in a society can go about their normal daily activities without any threat to their lives or properties. It embraces all measures designed to protect and safeguard the citizenry and the resources of individuals, groups, businesses and the nation against sabotage or violent occurrence (Achumbo et al, 2013). Security is the protection against all forms of harm whether physical, economic or psychological. It is however argued that security may not be absence of threats or security issues but the ability to rise to the challenges posed by threats with expediency and expertise. Security cannot therefore exist without provision for national security. Aggressive and repressive states can be major sources of human insecurity and a greater source of human suffering.

National security is concerned about those governmental institutions that seek to ensure the physical protection and safety of their citizens, their equal access to the law and protection of from abuse. There are two sets of government systems and institutions concerned with national security. The first component consists of the traditional instruments of national security, namely: the criminal justice system (police, justice and correctional services/prisons) the military and the intelligence community. The second and more important, relates to the nature of governance, its institutions and rules, norms and values that underpin it – as well as the efficacy thereof (Thamos, 2008).

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.2    Statement of Problem

Fulani herdsmen attack and farmers clashes has brought a lot of problems to our society including Nigeria. These include death, tears, destruction and so on. The way it is it seems our government has not acted significantly to put this security challenges to an end. Ese Otite of Nigerian National News asked “is the government waiting for all her citizens to fizzle out, before they can take a decisive step to curb the activities of this extremist group? What are the security agencies doing? Or do we say maybe those in power have not been affected either because they and their families move about with convoys filled with security personnel?”

Nigeria is going down a path never seen in her history. It’s a pretty dangerous path, one that the whole world is watching. People are afraid of their safety. At a time, we taught our problem was corruption and power failure, but now security has taken over. With what is happening the President should come out strong and call the shots, he has to face the security challenges. It is very clear that not enough is being done to address their security menaces of the Fulani herdsmen.  All they now do is to promote their own religion instead of protecting Nigeria. This government should as a matter of national urgency overhaul our security system. Nigeria occupies an enviable position in the world with abundant natural and human resources. The government should look deeper in order to find a lasting solution to this carnage. Moreover, the truth must be told, we lack the sophisticated weapons to suppress the crisis in the custody of the extremists/criminals. Also, there is inadequate manpower; the number of the extremists/criminals is insignificant.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the level of government Strategies and the management of security challenges in Nigeria: a case study of Fulani Herdsmen. While the specific objectives were: 

1.   To examine the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria

2.   To examine the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria

3.   To examine the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria

1.4    Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered:

1.   What is the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?

2.   What is the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?

3.   What is the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?

1.5        Hypothesis