1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER.
Leadership is an everyday act involving the skill of leading and dealing with people. The success in ruling a man’s dominion is contingent upon both his ability to will power effectively, and the existence of an opportunistic situation. Problem, which results within organizational member disagreeing on both the nature of goals, to which people aspire, and the act of leadership.
Leadership as lot used the term, refers to behaviour, under taken within the context of an organization that influence the way in which other organizational members behave (Banelas 1960).
It could be observed that both leadership and management envisage deeply into what the organization can achieve of the quality or recognition is accorded to them. Leadership has been approved to include the sources of influence that are built into a position in an organization hierarchy. These include organizational sanction rewards and punishments authority as could referent and expert power (Katz and Kalin 1966 p.32). It could be seen however, that subordinates within the organization though not all seems to enjoy influence that exists all over and above, the organizational hierarchy provided by their role is the organization.
Leadership is very essential to organization because, achievements and results occur corollary to trades being projected by the leader, leadership includes the ultimate source of power but has positive ability in persuading other individual and to be innovative in decision making.
Problems are bound to occur within every noted organization. Decision is bound to generate conflicts while imitating policies are doing this to achieve organizational goals. In this light, the motion of leadership act are those which help a group in meeting those stated objective (Banacks 1960, p491) in general terms act of strolling other people, which consists of uncertain reduction, which entails making the kind of choice that permits the organization to proceed towards its objective despite various third of internal and external disturbances.
The effectives of leadership have some characteristic elements, which include, forceful threats, complete assertion of authority to the subordinate and it derives situation responsibility.
Note that, in societies today, not only presentation of rewards (Positive and Negative) or the incentive appraised could province productivity but the feeling or sense of belonging.
Improper leadership qualities within, has a negative impact on the subordinate as well as the achievement of the organization objective.
1.2 PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERSHIP STYLE ON MANAGEMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION.
The act of controlling people to achieve organizational goal does not just occur. Circumstances environmental influence and facts are always presented for the successful act of leadership. Behaviour allows the entire manner of eliciting result from the unknown.
This behavioural approach, which holds that leaders are best, characterized by behaviour pattern rather than by individual tracts (filling and house 1969, p.393) in this context it could be said, that the behavioural theory of leaders is that factor which is responsible for motivating the leader as well as the subordinates.
The leadership behavior has two aspects, which involve consideration and initiating structure. The consideration, aspects refer to behaviour that increases mutual trust, respect, warmth and complete rapport between the leader and his group.
Grievance of this level diminishes as the amount of consideration demonstrated by foreman increase. Initiating structure has to do with the foreman behaviour. It assigns tasks, planning and decides how things should be done out. It is the act of leadership by managers and the derive responsibility by the subordinate considering the prevailing situation. It embodies emphasizes on the achievement of organizational goals. It is now seen that, leadership is affected by three (3) factors, which are, the leader, the led and situation, other wise the leader the subordinate and the situation respectively.
The leader posses some traits and characteristic which assist him to deal with prevailing situation. They are such skills as the conceptual skill, the human relation, administrative, managerial, analytical, technical and diagnostic skills. Others include intelligence; limitative imagination, enthusiasm, power need and achievement need (Hanen, 1961 p.171). This eventually result to task and personal oriented effort which will help to achieve complete success.
The subordinate or those being led also contribute in that; they want recognition in the organization in which they contribute their skill the result is because of the difference in status, order and re-organization some member may expect to be consulted on decision making and such personalities could be set by unilateral decision by the leader (Belasso et al lit 1981 p.146).
The prevailing situation also determines traits to employ many parts. Here law of situation contributes to the contingency management model, which states the behaviour of the leaders and subordinates.
NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
For leadership to be preset, a person who is skilled in the act of leadership must be adequately consulted. The leader should have the ability to practice judgment of circumstance in which he/she finds him or herself shows that the different kinds of circumstances sits for the effectiveness for the group as a hole by means of intervening variable which affects group performance directly. The skill of leadership act has (3) three dimension of ingredient, the ability to comprehend that human beings have different motivating force at varying times defending on the contingency of situation.
The ability to inspire and the ability to act in away that develops a climate for responding to the arousing motivation and co-ordination to improve group performance through decentralization of decision, effective participation in the organizational system, more than supper friendliness, consideration. Emphasizes concern on the need of group member and participative decision-making a two ways communication.
The skill level of subordinates can be motivated through improved communication of task relevant information. On the other hand highly motivated employees will not perform, if they lack the pre-requisites knowledge and skill. The second ingredient is that natural and rare ability to inspire the subordinate. This deals with task role organization referring to the efficient utilization of subordinates’ skill in the pursuit of the group assigned tasks. The task role normally depends upon how well job assignment and method selection are made. Alighted to inspire emanates from the group leader who posses the charismatic qualities that induce loyalty devotion and zeal on the part of the followers. If the jobs are highly specialized the demand of exercise of different skill and have difference in skills are posses by subordinates the decision concerning job assignment will be consequently major group performance when job assignment are poorly made, some workers will be under utilized. While others will be unable to perform their jobs adequately. The ability to inspire is a matter of people giving patriotic support to a chosen champion (Korntz et al p.63).
The third ingredient of leadership deals with the style of the leader and the climate he or she develops as a result to increasing motivation.
This is when uncalled pressure exists to organize task role quickly; participate decision making maybe dysfunctional. In this event, manager of the leader employs the unilateral of centralized decision making which is always advocate for assuming that the leader posses the requisite knowledge and skill to do.
THE LINK MODEL OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS INTERVIEWING.
ADATED FROM:- Young Gary toward a behavioural theory of leadership. Organization behaviour and human performance 1991, page 423.
It is daily pointed out that the human leader should task themselves to the designing and maintenance of an environment towards effective and efficient performance. People normally follow those who they say will cater for their own persons; good those managers who understand the motivational forces of the subordinates are very effective in management.
Leadership in its aim is to achieve the organizational goals, which different managers exist in authority. Harbison and Mayer (1969 pp 54-58) postulated four types of leadership style, which include autocratic, paternalistic participative and laissez-fair leadership.
The intension of the investigation is to compare the relationship between leadership and its effect in the effect finance and service oriented organization to identify the work performance.
The purpose of the study is to connect the leadership to organizational behaviour of management and to decide the trend and influence on leadership style on the management of an organization.
1.3 PROBLEM THAT SEARCH WILL BE CONCERNED WITH.
In aiming to go on with the stated problem of study, we will be concerned with leadership style that displays intelligence, initiative and communication trends, analytical diagnostic and conceptual skill recognition and situation contribute certainly to attaining organizational efficiency and growth in profit.
MAIN PROBLEM: The design of the investigation is to elicit the effect of the different leadership styles in finance oriented and service oriented organization in order to determine its destined impact on an organization.
SUB-PROBLEM: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the sector of leadership (the trinat, intelligence, initiative etc), in the case of an organization objective.
The objective of the inquiry is to ascertain the most favourable leadership style amongst autocratic, democratic paternalistic and lasses-fair used in the organization to determine its influence on management and employees.
a. The value of different factors of leadership in finance oriented as well as service oriented organization.
b. To critically evaluate the nature of leadership in affecting work performance.
c. To calculate the effect of leadership style and their basis relationship with organizational behaviour.
d. To highlight the adoption of any best leadership style that will suit the organization for effective productivity.
e. To inquire the extent leadership has been affecting decision-making and organizational effectiveness.
f. To appraise any possible relationship and compression on the effect of leadership style in organization behaviour act in the same manner in the case of organization.
Furthermore, the research will assist future researcher in defining possible solution to the best leadership style after and employees in different organization.
The significance of the study is basically a definite scope, which will help elicit all the problem, and effects of each different leadership styles. Also it will assist in highlighting how management and employees reacts under stereotype condition.
In addition, all the mentioned and determined effects problem and solution will be critically viewed to served as possible recommendation to today’s manager who may be willing to employ a particular leadership style. It will forestall a better situation for the leader to select the best type of leadership system.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed; and their impediments brought about conspicuous clause with the research work. Constraint any financial condition lack of relevant data, the design of this study was negatively attested by the nature of despondence, which was projected by the work within the case of organizations.
The non-challant attitude of the most approached sample of the studying population was discouraging. Relevant information needed for research was not made available. Information was consulted before allowed to be used.
Time Constraints: Time was also limited to the research in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Time constraint was experienced under dual stages. One was with sample under population study. They either schedule appointment which they could not meet up with or complain of limited time within their work, thought they are willing to respond.
Financial Condition: Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was serious impediment. These include transportation fare to and from school to case organization.
Also, that of extracting the essential information either through parting or through photocopy of relevant watered finance thus contributed immensely to unit the entire scope of the research.
Although all these obstruction were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desire result.
1.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
Research is basically aimed at determining ones view of related student of every given time. In the course of the study the above-mentioned subject on the leadership style has contributed immensely to organizational goal. For the purpose of this study, the behaviour of management and employees could be viewed as the endogenous as well as exogenous. The research will therefore proceed to express and state those objectives, which the study is expected to follows.
1.7 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
For clarity sake, this study will give operational definition of some variable in this topic.
Management: The administration and policy makes of business or other organization. In a corporation it is the board of director elected by stockholder and the officer of the corporation, appointed by the board of directors.
Effect: To case produce or have as result
Objective: The goal on organization or individual set to achieve.
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