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EFFECT OF SCHOOL LOCATION AND SEX DIFFERENTIALS ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS ( A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI-NORTH DELTA STATE)   ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to find out the effects of school location and sex differentials on students’ achievement in economics in secondary school. It was aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the disparity if any in the performance male and female students in economics, to also find out how the education institution at different location attended by the students influence their performance in economics and to provide solutions. Research questions were formulated. To collect the data for the study, questionnaires were administered to 100 students selected from different secondary school in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. The simple percentage was used to analyze data collected. The results were showed and recommendations were made. The following recommendation were made, the approval for establishment of new secondary schools should take into consideration, the maximum distance of one (1) kilometer between school and residence of majority of students. More schools should be established in areas where students’ population is above the minimum. Moreover, Government should come to the aid of schools mostly in rural areas with necessary teaching materials to facilitate the teaching and learning activities.



1.1   Background of the study

         Economics is the corner stone or the breath of social science and technological development.

         It is regarded as the bedrock of all social sciences subjects that could cut across the school curriculum and it is necessary in the study of social science whether theoretical or empirical. The desire of many countries particularly Nigeria to develop her human and material resource s in this direction has made it possible for the study and teaching of economics very imperative.

         Economic as well as most other sciences its frontiers are constantly changing commonly used as the study of the use of limited resources for the achievement of alternative ends. Theories employ abstract deductive reasoning whereby conclusions are drawn and purely empirical studies are inductive in nature. It is of records that the proper teaching and learning of economics is one of the most complex problems facing the Nigeria (Nig) educational system today.

         The location of nay school most time or case does follow some laid down guidelines. This is so because school should not be located close to any railway roads, factory and risky areas. Like river bank and high tension lines to mention a few. The  distance  to school in educational planning is seen  as  a rough indication to the schools densities consequently when schools are densely populated, the solution is either  running the  shifty system or  establishing another  school within the  locality. Distance travelled to schools by students also has some relationship to school attendance punctuality to school and absenteeism. When the distance travelled to school is too far from residence of majority of the students, there is the reluctance for students to attend class or school. This is so because majority of the students in Delta state and indeed all over the country walk to and fro from school. It was this reason that make the definite government of Delta state in its free education programme stipulated that schools should not be established more than one kilometer (k/m)  from the residence of  majority of the  students. Attendance in schools is a crucial factor in the case in which some students travel more than five kilometer (k/m) to get to their various schools. Some students are over populated because of their location while some others are spatially polluted. No doubt that several problems are associated in the location of schools without taking into consideration some of the parameters for location enumerated above.

         The patterns of gender role development vary with gender achievement is a relatively stable characteristics in children. Boys and girls who possess the attributes associated with achievement. Some experiment being carried out shows middle childhood and adolescence. Some experiment being carried out shows that the motivational base for achievement may differ between the two genders. Girls frequently appear to engage in achievement behaviour as a means of gaining approval from adults and peers while bys are more often motivated by the intrinsic challenge of the task. In many research studies carried out, boys appears to manifest higher level of achievement behaviour when the difference actually involves factors of achievement motivation. The elements of parental behaviour are mostly closely related to early achievement include encouragement of independency.

         Hence the term achievement refers to the child’s attempts to attain some standard and to acquire the skills necessary for dealing effecting with his environment. It is so because of the problems associated with that we see to investigate the distance travelled to schools by the students in secondary schools. The study also looked into the effect of gender differential on students’ achievement.

1.2   Statement of Problem

Since the general assumption is that school location and gender differentials have  effects on students achievement, the  problems of this study is to ascertain what effect a school location has on students achievement in economics. What effect does a gender differential have on student’s achievement in economics?

         The location of a school has a significant effect on the academic performance of the child. A school could be located in the urban or rural area. Ezewo (1987) stated the obvious that the location of a school (rural or urban) affects a child’s ability to study and perform at the level expected of him. A stimulating school environment arouses the students to learn especially in the area of economics. Hence, the degree of interest a student desires from a learning environment affects his/her performance.

         The various biological differences in human make-up particularly between male and female human being in most cases have led to the suspicious that one sex may have a “learning edge” over the other sex. Some people believe (without of course any empirical supports) that because men are regarded as the dominant and even superior sex, they intrinsically have better brain and learn much better than woman Mkpughe; (1982). This view tends to be in line together with that of Hyde; (1981) that differences between male and female students in intellectual performance in schools have been demonstrated on a wide range of variables Maccoby and Jacklin (1981) at concluded that three congestive gender differences where we established.

         Girls have greater verbal ability than boys and boys have better visual spatial ability than girls. Other research studies show that observed differences had no considerable efforts have been expended on trying to see how gender effect can be implicated in the seemingly poor performance of girls in economics.

         Ukwuagwu (2002) importunately these research efforts have not have produced any definite clear cut picture from the findings as they do not agree on the magnitude and direct6ion of gender differences in performance in economics. The present study tries to take wholistic views of gender effect in economics by looking at the effect of gender in relation to other variable of socio-economic states and school location on performance in economics.

         Research on gender differences in academic achievement is likely to offer educator information on implications and guidance direction to take. The growing dominance of females in education attainment raises new question about gender disparities.

1.3    Purpose of Study

Ø    To identify the factors responsible for the disparity if any in the performance of male and female students in economics

Ø    To try and  find out the  education institutions at different locations attended by the students influence their performance in economics

Ø    To provide solution, make suggestion and recommendations that could help our educational policy maker and planners to formulate strategies that could yield desired goals irrespective of rural and urban location in Ughelli North Local Government Area in Delta State.

Ø    To investigate the effect of gender on academic achievement of students in economics

Ø    To find out the interaction effect of treatment and gender on the academic achievement of students in economics.

 1.4   Research Question

This study will attempt to answer the fooling questions

·      Is there any difference between the academic achievement of male and female students in economics?

·      Is there any difference between the academic achievement of students in the rural and urban schools?

·      Is there any difference between the academic achievement of boys in rural and their urban counterparts?

·      Is there any difference between academic achievement of girls in the urban area and their rural counterparts?

1.5    Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis has been formulated as the basis for this research.

§  There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students in economics in secondary school certificate examination.

§  There is no difference between the academic achievement of students in the rural and urban secondary school students in economics

§  There is no significant differences in the economics achievement between boys in rural and urban counterparts

§  There is no significant difference in the economics achievement between girls in urban and their rural counterparts.

1.6    Significance of the Study

The result from this study when finally analyzed will help finding out the performance of both male and female students. It is intended that this study will provide some insights for researchers in the field of education leadership in their search for solution to some of the administrative problem in consideration in planning the economics curiiculum in Nigeria secondary school. This study will be of help to the ministry of education in Nigeria by enabling them to examine the administrative governance of schools, as school location affect the performance of students. This study will also be of help to the ministry of education that the government should bridge the gap between the rural and urban location education by providing the rural civilian the social amenities which will chance better academic performance of students.

         Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In the regard it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.

1.7    Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The researcher is restricted to five secondary schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State.

         The study was  based  on the  collection and analysis of school result (SSCE) which will help the  researcher in comparing the performance of male and female students in economics from 2011-2012.

1.8    Limitation of Study

The researcher was unable to extend the study due to financial constraints and also time was not enough as the researcher also had to take care of other  academic courses.

1.9    Definition of Terms

     Schools:- School is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direct of teachers

     Sex Differentials:  This simply means a term referring to male and female differences in morbidity and mortality, difference in performance. The sum of the structural and functional difference by which male and female are distinguished.

     Achievement: Achievement is something accomplished especially by superior ability, special effort, great courage. Achievement connotes final accomplishment of something noteworthy.