1.0 Background of the Study
Raising and utilizing funds efficiently and effectively has been a major source of concern to all financial managers both in the corporate world and Public Sector all over the work. The prime purpose of establishing a firm is to ensure that returns will not only be sufficient to meet the cost of funds but also enough to satisfy the wealth of maximization objective of the firms, thus, raising finance for corporate bodies has become important.
Financial management can thus be described as the managerial planning and controlling of financial resources of a business to achieve the objectives of the business. It has long been considered as a branch of economics but in the early 20th century it emerged as a separate discipline. It can also be defined as the identification of the possible strategies capable of maximizing an organizations net present value, the allocation of scarce resources among the competing opportunities, and the implementation and monitoring of the chosen strategy so as to achieve stated objectives.
Financial management as a subject is of growing interest to both academics and financial managers. On its emergence, it dealt with only the instruments, institutions and procedures in the capital market. It later dealt with keeping records and reports, establishing funds (external financing) monitoring cash position and paying bills. It also deals with the concepts, assumptions, principle and techniques underlying the major financial decisions of the enterprises. Financial management connotes responsibility for obtaining and effectively utilizing the funds necessary for the efficient operation of an enterprise. The finance function centre around the management of funds, raising and using them effectively. It therefore covers all functions concerned in attempting to ensure that financial resources are obtained and used in the most effective way to secure attainment of the objectives of the organization.
It provides the background for thorough understanding of the nature, theories and critical issues relating to modern financial management. It thus serves as a necessary background to a more advanced treatment of the investment financial decision.
Financial management today now includes a rigorous analysis of investment of organization’s funds in assessing and obtaining the best mix of financial and dividend in relation to overall market valuation of a firm.
The field is still changing with ideas and techniques. The historical background of the company under review is thus:
Nigeria National Petroleum Company (NNPC) was established on April 1977 under the statutory instrument decree No.33 of the same year by a merger of the Nigeria National Oil corporation operational functions and the ministry of mines and power with its regulating responsibility, this decree established NNPC, a public organization that would no behalf of government adequately manage all government interest in the Nigeria oil industry.
In addition to its exploration activities, the corporation was given powers and operational interest in refining petrochemicals and products transportation as well as marketing. Between 1978-1989, NNPC constructed refineries in Warri, Kadunaand Port Harcourt and took over 35,000 barrel shell refinery established in Port Harcourt in 1965.
In 1988, the NNPC was commercialized into 12 strategic business units covering the entire spectrum of oil industry operations: exploration and production gas development, refining, distribution, petrochemical engineering and commercial investment. The subsidiary companies include:
i. National Petroleum Investment Management Services (NAPISMS).
ii. Nigeria Petroleum Development Company (NNPC).
iii. The Nigerian Gas Company (NGC).
iv. The Products and Pipelines Marketing Company (PPMC).
v. Integrated Data Services Limited (IDSL).
vi. Nigeria LNG Limited (NLNGN)
vii. National Engineering and Technical Company Limited (NETCO).
viii. Hydrocarbon Services Nigeria Limited (NYSON).
ix. Warri Refinery and Petrochemical Co. Limited (WRPC).
x. Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Co. Limited (KRPC)
xi. Port-Harcourt Refining Co. Limited (PHRC)
xii. Eleme Petrochemicals Co. Limited (EPCC).
In addition to these subsidiaries, the industry is also regulated by the department of petroleum resources (DPR) a department within the ministry of Petroleum Resources. The DPR ensures compliance with industry regulations processes applications for licenses, leases and permits establishes and enforces environmental regulations. The DPR and NAPIMS playa very crucial role in the day to day activities throughout the industry.
The NNPC is by law a joint venture between the Nigerian Federal Government and a number of foreign multinational corporations, which includes royal Dutch Shell, Exxon-Mobil, Agip, Total Fina Elf, Chevron and Texaco (though now merged with chevron). Through collaboration with these companies, the Nigerian government conducts petroleum exploration and development.
According to the Nigerian constitution, all minerals, Gas and oil the country possesses are legally the property of the Nigeria Federal Government.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Public finance is closely connected to issues of income distribution. Resources generation, resources allocation, expenditure management are the essential component of the public financial management system. most of the time, resource collected from the economy are inefficiently and ineffectively utilized which constitute poor financial management.
Financial information relating to the operations of the joint ventures are not in the public domain, most public enterprises have no audited account and not been audited in several years.
Public enterprise are poorly managed, and highly unreported with their financial information either unavailable unreliable where such financial information are available, or questionable at best. They are broken and has become liabilities the their nations. They have a huge debt profile, hidden financial records and obviously unable to meet their financial obligations.
To achieve transparent government, this question must be answered, how can financial poor financial management be eliminated in public enterprises?.