GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG FEMALE ADULTS IN FCT, ABUJA
1.1. Background of the Study
Globally, there is no place where men and women are equal. Women are always at the receiving end as they are oppressed and marginalized. They are regarded as subordinates to men. Egweni (2009) noted that female constitute over 50 percent of the world in terms of population. Inspite of this number, women are at disadvantage side and enjoy very few privileges and rights relative to men. These poor global records of women’s status are worst in the Africa continent. In Nigeria, the situation is not different, as the discrimination of women in favour of men can be traced right to the period of colonialism. In Nigeria, women were deprived of any official input into governance, as against what was operated in the pre-colonial era. Women were disenfranchised and deprived from governance, which they were apart of before the advent of colonialism.
Colonialism, in effect denied women access to a level playing field as it transferred to Nigeria the gender discrimination that was the norm in the Western world then. It also imposed on a society, which had created a certain amount of space for women, a situation of non-involvement and the ability of women to complement the efforts of the men in the society. Women participate actively in the economic as members of labour force, however, in many developing countries, including Nigeria neglect. of women’s contribution to the economy had led to their marginalization in the nations planning process (Dalat, 2010). Promoting gender equality is now globally accepted as a development strategy for reducing poverty levels among women and men, improving health and living standards and enhancing efficiency of public investments. The attainment of gender equality is not only seen as an end in itself and human rights issue, but as a pre-requisite for the achievement of sustainable development.
In global commitment, in 1986, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the declaration on the right of all countries by proclaiming right that each person and all peoples of the world are entitled to participate and contribute to economic social cultural and political development for full realization human rights and fundamental freedoms.
The declaration of the 1995 World Summit for social development in Copenhagen and platform for action adopted by the 1995 Fourth World conference on women in Beijing were practical commitment by international communities to do away with gender discrimination and ensured gender equality in our society.
Africa government have equally responded positively the burden of under development by instituting continent specific development goals and strategies, while also recognizing the firm commitment to gender equality as the bait to development. These are expressed in the African charter on Human and People’s Rights (AHPR), adopted in 1981 and its women’s right protocol of 2003, the ECOWAS protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, 2001 and New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) adopted in July, 2001.
Nigeria in her commitment to gender equality enshrined the principal of nondiscrimination in section 2 of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria. Despite her commitment to the principle of non-discrimination, the country falls short of desired result of giving male and females’ equal opportunities to advance socially, educationally, politically and economically. Arising from the above, the research finding aimed to expose us to understand the causes and extent of gender discrimination, impact of policy and programme and their implication.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
It has been stressed over time and space, and within the historical conjectures of the Nigeria public service that female gender had suffered untold subordination and discrimination. While in an ideal setting, the State supposed to guarantee the protection of female gender and accord them equal right and opportunities with the male counterparts, such an ideal condition rarely exists in human societies, especially in aspect of crucial and sustainable participation in policy making, strategic plan and implementation (Isah 2005).
According to Olufemi (2010) even though women constitute about sixty percent of the Nigeria population, there are still disproportionate low number of them in senior leadership positions in all areas. In civil service men dominate senior management positions hence control female employees. This may be treated by society as legitimate, since the practice still continues.
Nigeria has a long patriarchal structure directly restricts women’s availability for wage work and indirectly condition the term of employment for those who enter civil service (Robert, 2004). This patriarchal nature of relationship between men and women in the society was substantiated and justified by men quoting some verses from the Holy Bible that Eve? was extracted from Adams’ rib as proof of men superiorly over women. This was used in most occasions with some sort of links with other cultural factors to make the women in the society to accept their position as divine providence (Otite, 2005).
Robert (2004) observed that women in the civil service are characterized by limited and insecure employment opportunities and marked substandard wages, poor working condition, unstable hours and disadvantageous employment contracts. Women are predominantly employed in low wage jobs or extremely small scale ventures which shunt them into segregated occupation and repetitions manual production. A cursory examination of the federal civil service workers breakdown in Nigeria showed that 75% of them are men, whereas women constitute 25% and occupy less than 14% of the overall management positions, despite the appointment of women to the position of permanent secretaries (beginning in 2000 and in line with affirmative action institutions).
In Nasarawa State, out of fifteen thousand three hundred and ninety (15,390) civil servants at the local government Ares, the male gender constitute ten thousand, four hundred and fifty (10,450) representing 67.9% whereas the female gender was four thousand nine hundred and forty (4,940) representing 32.1% (Report on staff screening and verification of local government Areas, 2015).
Whereas, in Lafia local government council, male constituted four hundred and forty eight (448) representing 63.7% while the female form to hundred and fifty five (255) of the work force representing 36.3%. From this statistical record, do disparities not exist? Why gender equality not given prominent consideration in the recruitment? What would be implication of this imbalance interms of job performance? It is against this backdrop that calls for this study since no research has been carried out on implication of gender discrimination and unemployment among female adult in FCT.
1.3. Research questions
What is the rates of gender discrimination and unemployment status among female adult in FCT
What is the effect of female educational qualifications on gender discrimination in FCT
What is the effect of the effect gender discrimination on employment status of female adult in FCT.
1.4. Objectives of the Study
To examine the rates of gender discrimination and unemployment status among female adult in FCT?
To examine the effect of female educational qualifications on gender discrimination in FCT?
To examine the effect of the effect gender discrimination on employment status of female adult in FCT?
1.5. Statement of the hypothesis
There is no significant effect of the rates of gender discrimination and unemployment status among female adult in FCT.
There is no significant effect of female educational qualifications on gender discrimination in FCT?
There is no significant effect of the effect gender discrimination on employment status of female adult in FCT?
1.6. Significance of the study
The study give information, data and statistical figures to economic planners, National Bureau of statistic labour force, local government civil service commission and ministry of women affairs.
It will reveal the contribution of both male and female gender in socio-economic service delivery in the public sector. The result of the research findings will expose us to understand the causes, the extent of discrimination. It will also assist the government to further formulate appropriate policies or make laws that will reduce gap that exist between the genders in government employment at the local government council level.
1.7. Limitation of study
The following limitations are inherent in the study and these includes poor road network as a result of the geographical location of the places of study, scarce financial resources, material and time constraint were some of the limitations of this research study.
1.8 Scope of the study -.