1.1 Background to the Study
A lot of researchers like Lar, (1982), Ezeomah, (1985), Ribadu, (1986), Abba (1986) and Tahir, (1996) called for the contextualization of nomadic textbooks as those that reflect the nomadic Fulbe‟s culture and norms. This is based on the decision of the government of Nigeria that learning is the primary means of upgrading the socio-economic condition of the rural population. This population particularly, the Fulani, are difficult to educate. The reason for nomadic contextualization of textbooks is to integrate the Fulbe nomads into national life, by providing them with relevant and functional basic education which will improve their lives and that of the nation in general. Fulbe Nomads are people who move from one place to another in search of livelihood. Also, Ezeomah (1987), refers to them as “Ethnic or socio-cultural groups who travel and migrate in large or small group in search of livelihood within a community”. Other forms of nomads include the pastoralists, migrant fishermen and migrant farmers who are widely spread all over Africa.
In an attempt to accomplish the task of the contextual approach of teaching and learning in nomadic fulbe schools, six zonal offices which include; North West, North Central, North East, South West, South South and South East and three University centers that include: University of Sokoto, University of Jos and University of Maiduguri. These zones help to complement the efforts of the headquarters. It came out with curricula for Nomadic Education curriculum that is expected to cater for the unique lifestyle of the nomads. This curriculum calls for the development of textbooks based on the needs and aspirations of the nomad‟s lifestyle.
The developed textbooks came in form of pupils‟ textbooks and teachers‟ guide. However, one is prompted to ask the one that is better, the so called adapted nomadic textbooks or the conventional English textbooks? These questions are what prompted the researcher to carry out this study to ascertain the impact of the conventional and contextual reading comprehension textbooks on the pupils. Given also the impression that the world is now a global village, do the nomads need the contextual textbooks for reading comprehension to perform within the expected level of competence? Will it not be a disservice to the nomadic Fulani pupils to expose them only to English textbooks that relate to their immediate contextual environment only? These are the inspirations behind this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nomadic Commission adapted the strategy of using content and concept of the nomadic Curriculum and textbooks depicting the socio-cultural background of the nomads. The Commission dropped the conventional English textbooks in order to make learning more meaningful and easy to the nomads. Little or no consideration is given to the global nature of education and the future of the nomads. While contextual textbooks are not used by tertiary institutions, the nomadic children are constrained in knowledge at the end of the day; it is likely that the nomadic pupils might be restricted to only their environment. Considering the fact that the world has now turned to a global village, is it not vital to blend the nomads with the outside world? In our multicultural world, effective approach requires the kind of understanding, perspective and skill that comes from engagement with diverse communities and contexts. Will the use of both conventional and contextual learning not help the nomadic fulbe learners to understand their local and
global culture? This research, therefore, intends to study the impact of conventional passages on reading comprehension performance of nomadic primary five pupils of Sabon-Gari and Soba local government of Kaduna State with a view to finding out whether or not conventional approach could be applied in teaching reading comprehension to nomadic schools.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of using conventional and contextual English textbooks on the reading comprehension performance of nomadic pupils. This means the impact of the use of conventional and the contextual textbooks in teaching reading would be investigated. Specifically, this study seeks to:
1. determine the difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the conventional and contextual passages at the literal level,
2. examine the differences in the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the inferential level and
3. examine the difference in the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading Comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the critical level.
1.4 Research Questions
This study intends to answer the following research questions:
1. What is the difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension passages in the contextual and conventional passages at the literal level?
2. What is the difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the inferential level?
3. What is the difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the critical level?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated for testing at 0.05 level of significant.
HO1: There is no significant difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the literal level.
HO2: There is no significant difference between the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the inferential level.
HO3: There is no significant difference in the performance of nomadic pupils exposed to reading comprehension in the contextual and conventional passages at the critical level.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The Nomadic Fulani teachers would hopefully find this study useful when they integrate conventional and contextual textbooks in teaching their nomad pupils. They would possibly discover which of the texts are better for training them effectively in English. Pupils in nomadic schools would benefit from the result of this study when their teachers adapt the use of conventional and contextual textbooks in teaching.
It will also enable them cope with any given environment they tend to find themselves. Curriculum planners would find this study as an effective tool for designing language programs that will suit the nomadic educational system. If the study finds out that nomadic children are able to perform better using the conventional textbooks then, the study can recommend the use of conventional textbook together with contextual textbooks.
Commission for Nomadic Education would also benefit from this study by creating awareness on the need for provision of conventional and contextual textbook materials, if the experiment proves the use of the two to be effective training and supervision of nomad teaching could also be done using that study and it is also hope to be useful to the future researchers too.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation
The study covers all the public nomadic schools of Sabon-Gari and Soba local Government areas of Kaduna State. The areas examined are impact of conventional and contextual English textbooks on reading performance of nomadic pupils of Soba and Sabon-Gari Local Governments, Kaduna state. Primary five pupils in the nomadic schools were used for this research..