This study entitled ‗Effects of scaffolding technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasaraw State, Nigeria is aimed at inculcating in learners the right type of attitude, knowledge, and skills to help them resolve conflicts using non-violent approach. The study has three objectives, three research questions, and three corresponding hypotheses. The study used the eclectic approach to situate educational theories underpinning Social Studies Education, Harris‘s (2004) peace education theory, and Vygosky‘s (1978) Zone of Proximate Development (ZPD) explaining scaffolding technique. The population of the study was 1178 involving N.C.E. II Social Studies of C.O.E. Akwanga, and HIILs C.O.E. Gwanje. The sample size of the study is made up of 90 research participant. The research design for the study is the quasi-experimental research design, the reliability index for instrument is .947 and .80 respectively. Hypothesis one and three, were tested with the use of t-test independent statistic, while hypotheses two was tested using ANOVA. Hypotheses one, was rejected while hypotheses two and three were accepted. The findings of the study revealed that: Scaffolding Technique is effective and more superior to the conventional teaching approach in the teaching of peace education. Scaffolding enhances students‘ academic performance through cooperative, autonomous, and independent learning. Scaffolding technique is not gender bias. The study made the following recommendations: Colleges of Education, and teachers should adopt scaffolding technique in teaching because scaffolding technique creates an enabling environment where learners can interact in series of learning activities which can lead to better understanding of concepts. Teachers should teach learners‘ peace education using scaffolding technique, because scaffolding technique allows learners to work in groups, become autonomous, as well as independent learners, this will help in improving their academic performance. Teachers should not discriminate learners based on gender, because scaffolding technique is not gender bias. The study made contributions to knowledge.
1.1 Background to the Study
Peace has been the most crucial issue of human existence from its inception. Beginning from the very first recorded murder, of Abel by his brother Cain - the children of Adam and Eve mentioned in the Book of Genesis - the history of war and bloodshed is nearly as old as the history of humankind. Right up to the present day, we continue to witness outbreaks of violence throughout our war-torn global village (Moons, 2002). Globally, human peace integration and security initiatives have increasingly assumed policy priority necessary for good governance. ―Within the frame work of global social system, human peace and security has become a contemporary social issue for understanding global disposition‖ (Bette, Ude. 2011). The advocate of human security and peace building initiative challenge the conventional notion of national security, they argued that the focal point of security should be the individual. They submitted that a people centered security is a necessary condition for national, regional and global stability (Bette, 2011). This view is collaborated by ElBaradei (2006) who postulates that ―human quest for peace is not confine to one region as search for security is still a major concern for people and nations‖. The current picture of peace, integration and security in a global scale is not encouraging, as the world is becoming increasingly insecure.
The terrorist and the extremist are taking the advantage of advance technology to find new ways of engaging with disaffected youths, they utilize the social network site, radical chat rooms and online video channel. As noted by European commission (2014) ―Terrorism in Europe is now found in variety of ideology, this include nationalist and separatist ideology those inspired by Al-Qaida, violent left-wing, anarchist, and right-wing ideology‖. The crises in Ukraine and Syria points to the fact that insecurity, separatist nationalism and lack of peace can serve as the bedrock for the fall of democratic regimes. ―The September 2001 terrorist assaults striking at the heart of the United States of America, the unending spiral of attacks and reprisals between Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East, and the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, to name but a few (Moons, 2002), are pointers to insecurity across the globe.
Africa is a vast and varied continent, the source of conflict in Africa reflect this diversity and complexity, hence some sources of conflicts are purely internal, some reflect the dynamics of a particular sub-region, and some have important international dimensions‖ (Agrippa and Ezozo, 2009). Journalistic accounts of wars in Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and several other countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping affiliations of religion and race may undermine prospects for economic and political development in much of Africa (Osinubi, 2006). The leadership failure in Africa culminates to form the challenges of poverty, corruption, hunger, unemployment which serve as the bedrock for problems of lack peace, integration and insecurity across Africa. The first generation of African leaders had the conviction that political independence would give Africans the opportunity to developed politically, socially and economical, but the reality on ground is contrary to those wild dreams. The devil is in transition‖ (Reycher in Blagojevic 2009), Synder postulate that ―the transition to democracy seem to have facilitated the ethnic conflict, Synder further argued that ―a countries first step towards democracy spur the development of nationalism and heightens the risk of war and internal ethnic conflicts‖ (Synder cited in Blagojevic, 2009).
Nigeria has a land mass of approximately 923,768 square kilometer with an estimated population of 167 million people, it is estimated that there are some 400 ethnic groups of varying sizes and cohesiveness that are to be found in Nigeria. These group for most part, before the British colonial rule had remain largely separated, although some form of interaction inform of trade, religious ties and sometimes politics did occur‖ (Ikimi, 2006; Aniekwe and Kushie, 2011). The negotiations, competition struggle among divers ethnic group in a given state has the capacity to generate conflicts, even though there are some states who have done well recognizing and managing their multi ethnic configuration while others have not make any remarkable progress. ―On October 1, 1960 when Nigeria gained her independence, most African nations thought Nigeria would serve as an example for the rest of the continent. Nigeria could have played that role, but the major setback for the new political development was the introduction of a military regime. Hence, the Nigerian elite started a culture of undemocratic and unaccountable government that has crippled the continent‖ (Agrippa and Ezozo, 2009). The colonial legacy and military interventions into the political land scape of Nigeria can be argued as
the key factor or a catalyst for the current security challenges the country is witnessing
today. EL Rufai (2013) adds:
―a little over five years into Nigeria‘s independence and first republic, a group of young misguided and naïve military officers wipe out nearly all of the nation‘s political leadership. The bulk of those murdered in January 15, 1966 were leaders from regions and ethnic group other than those where the coup plotters hailed from. This led to mass killings, counter coups, and civil war laid to the foundations for Nigeria‘s unfortunate political, economic and social trajectory for the ensuring forty plus years‖.
Similarly, Falade and Falade (2013) observed that ―immediately after
independence in 1960, Nigeria witness ethnic based agitation and party politics that
strengthened the ethnic bias and intolerance that existed among people from different part
of the nation‖. Ethnicity has become a major challenge to Nigeria‘s political, economic
and social development and a threat to peace, national integration and security. ―The
prolong stay of military in power has created a very large vacuum in the constitution
because the law is not applied, instead the military regime use decree to rule‖ (Ayittey,
2012), as a result, an ethnic nationalist in Nigeria see his/her self as members of a particular ethnic nationality before identifying himself and herself with a nation‖ (Aluko and Ajani, 2009). This is the justification for the proliferation of ethnic association and militia groups.
The feeling of attachment to once ethnic group has led to the emergence of ethnic
associations and ethnic militia such as ― Yoruba council of elders (YCE) Odua people‘s
congress (OPC), Arewa consultative forum (ACF), ‗Arewa people‘s congress (APC),
Oheneze Ndigbo; ‗Egbesu Boys‘ ‗Bakassi Boys‘, Middle Belt forum‘ (MBF), movement
for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) South-South people‘s congress, Union of
Niger-delta (UND), (Falade, 2008; Aluko, 2009; Elaigwu, 2013). In addition, there is the
emergence of other new deadly ethnic militia groups such as the Ombatse, Eggon ethnic
Militia. Another dangerous perspective to national peace, integration and security is the
activities of the dreaded group, the Boko haram who kill with impunity. ―Around 2002, a
group of young Muslim adherent from the North-eastern state of Borno and Yobe in Nigeria declare that Nigerian state as founded on the basis of unbelief or kurf, a reason which justify in their view, a jihad or Holy war against it. With the name ahlul Sunna lidda‘awatiwal jihad, this group‘s abhorrence to anything western, including culture, value, and educational system earned them the pejorative name of Boko Haram which in Hausa language is roughly translated to mean western education is sin‖ (Walker, 2012). The killing of male student in Yobe. The recent kidnapping of over 250 female student in a boarding school at Chibok Borno state by Boko haram is the height of insecurity in Nigeria, it has attracted global outrage and condemnation. There is ‗rain of Bombs‘ everywhere. ―Apart from the bomb blast of Oct. I, 2010, there have been many bomb-blast including those at the police headquarters and the United Nations Office‖ (Elaigwu, 2013). ―The Nyanya bomb blast, which analysts now refer to as the 14/4 bombing, is so far the deadliest attack on the nation‘s capital, ever since a 35-year-old Boko Haram member, Mohammad Manga, detonated his bomb-laden vehicle at Police Headquarters, Abuja, on 16 June 2011‖ (Onuoho, 2014). Back-to-back bomb blast killed at least 118 people and wounded 45 people in the crowded business district of the central Nigerian city of Jos (Reuters, 2014). Nigeria is today in a deep crisis as a result of leadership failure. The result is lack of peace, national unity and security. Citizens in the North-East Nigeria have lost confidence in the government at the center to provide them with security, they have resolve to defend themselves against the rampaging Boko Haram. ―Over 200 Boko Haram terrorist killed by local Borno Villagers in fight back‖ (NigerianWatch, 2014). ―Members of a vigilante group in the Madagali town of Adamawa State did not just killed 70 Boko Haram menbers, but they also captured seven alive who they handed over to the police‖ (FreshGist.com, 2014). This implies that, the legitimacy of government is fast deteriorating. ―The search for ‗national identity‘ and ‗autonomy‘ now challenges The legitimacies of the government and the very existence of the state as these searches are in the form of Arm struggle, formation of ethnic militia, religious and ethnic conflict, and terrorism‖ (Azalahu, Joseph, and Jane 2013). The present Nigerian government has lost the monopoly of the State instrument of violence.
North Central zone of Nigeria is home to Minority Ethnic Groups and the dominant religions are Islam and Christianity it is also home to people from majority ethnic groups making North Central States ethnically diverse, the diversity is mostly not utilized in a way to bring about meaningful progress, peace, integration and a sense of security to the people in the area. Communal violence has become a common phenomenon. ―Between 1991and 2007 there were several outbreak of communal violence in Jos. The two that stand out are those of April 1994 and September 2001. The Jos crisis of 2001 was the beginning of a series of outbreak of communal violence, in Plateau State, continuing in 2002, 2003, and 2004 which generated 250,000 internally displaced persons (IDP‘s)‖ ( Ostien, 2009). ―Investigations showed that in the Middle Belt, most conflicts are actually over land clashes. In Benue State, 27 of the 32 areas of conflict studied between 1980 and 2001 were over landownership as were 4 out of 6 in Plateau State between 1991 and 2000, 8 out of 13 in Kogi State between 1991 and 2000 and 5 out of 13 in Nasarawa State between 1985 and 2001. Not only were these clashes deadly, but they also tended to last longer than other types of conflicts‖ (Mvendaga, Antonia, and Habu, 2001). Only in September 2013, while fighting the Boko Haram, President Jonathan ordered the army to go into Nasarawa State, to curb the menace of the Ombatse militants‖ (Elaigwu, 2013). The consequences of all these violent conflicts in Nasarawa State is that, it has negative effects on student‘s learning outcomes, because most times when there is violence some students lose their lives, the school academic calendar is distorted, schools closed down, tension amongst students from the conflicting communities, and there is generally lack of mental security among students‘, this calls for peace education.
The idea of a scaffolded approach to learning is linked to scholars such as Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky was of the view that children learn by interacting with more knowledgeable others such as adults, older peers, a teacher, or, the internet, Smith, Cowie, and Blades, 2003). According to Yu and Tsai (2013) Scaffolding, a term coined by Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1976) is a form of support to help learners reach pedagogical goals which they may not be able to achieve if unaided. In particular, it attempts to bridge the gap between the learners' current abilities (actual development) and the intended goals (potential development).Raymond (2000) stated that Instructional scaffolding is a teaching approach that underscores the teaching of new skills by engaging pupils collaboratively in tasks that would be too difficult for them to complete on their own. Scaffolding is linked with cooperative, autonomous and independent learning. In cooperative learning learners in class work cooperatively, engaged in face-to-face interaction, brain storm as well as learning inter-personal and social skills. In autonomous learning, the learners study autonomously charting their way through self-initiated learning and taking charge and control of learning. However, in independent learning, the learner is learning to learn, and become self-reflective about learning processes. The three learning styles can take place under the guidance of a teacher. The teacher becomes more of a facilitator of learning processes.
Vygotsky‘ssocio-cultural theory spelt out that social interaction plays an important role in the development of cognition. He believes that learning occurs through participation in social or culturally embedded experiences. In his view, the learner does not learn in isolation, rather learning is strongly influenced by social interactions, which take place in meaningful contexts. Children social interaction with more knowledgeable or capable people and their environment significantly affect their ways of thinking and interpreting situations.
Instructional scaffolding as a teaching strategy depends heavily on the idea that children come to school with pre-existing knowledge, some of which may be incorrect. It is the process of building on what a student already knows that makes scaffolding an effective instructional technique. Olson and Prath (2000) quoted in Azih and Nwosu (2011) noted that in instructional scaffolding, a more knowledgeable other provides scaffolds to facilitate the learner development. The scaffolds facilitate a student ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize new information. The activities provided in scaffolding instruction are just beyond the level of what the learner can do alone. An important aspect of scaffolding is that the scaffolds are temporary. As the learners abilities increase the scaffolding provided by the more knowledgeable person is progressively withdrawn. Finally, the learner is able to complete the task or master the concepts independently (Chang, 2002 as cited in Azih, 2011).
When scaffolding is incorporated in the classroom, the teachers become more of a mentor and facilitator of knowledge rather than the dominant content expert. Although scaffolding is often carried out between the teacher and one student, scaffolds can successfully be used for an entire class. In teaching and learning situations, more complex content might require a number of scaffolds given at different times to help students master the content. In scaffolded lesson the teacher provide encouragement and praise as well as ask questions and have students explain their progress to help them stay focused on their learning goals.It also enables the teacher to help students become less dependent on instructional supports as they work on tasks and encourage them to practice the task in different contexts.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Scaffolding technique plays important role in teaching and learning processes as revealed by numerous studies. In spite of its importance, scaffolding technique has long being neglected approach in teaching of social studies education. The processes of employing scaffolding technique on the part of learners and explicitly teaching skills on the part of teachers, has been overlooked. This neglect comes through strong emphasis on traditional teaching approach. One of the major difficulties facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the academic performance of students in local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and stake-holders in the educational sector over the years. It is observed that students usually fail in examinations due to improper teaching technique, motivation and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery.
Against this backdrop, the researcher is motivated to carry out this study with a view to use scaffolding technique to teach peace education to N.C.E social studies students in order to enhance their academic performance. Thus, this study deemed it necessary to look specifically into the Effects of Scaffolding Technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
The problem areas of this study are stated as follows:
1. Many NCE social studies students lack the strategies to learn cooperatively ina community of learners.
2. Most learners lack interest in learning autonomously because of the difficulty they encounter in their attempt to self-initiate learning and taking responsibility of their learning.
3. How to make learners learn independently through self-reflection within a cooperative learning group.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is to investigate the Effects of Scaffolding Technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Based on the stated problem of the study, the following objectives were stated:
1. Find out the effects of scaffolding technique on academic performance ofstudents in peace education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
2. Find out if there is difference in the performance of students in Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning in peace education.
3. Investigate the effect of scaffolding on the academic performance among Male and Female students‘in peace education in colleges of education in Nasarawa state, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were
1. What is the difference in the mean performance score in peace education between students taught peace education with scaffolding strategy and those taught using conventional teaching approach in colleges of education in Nasarawa state?
2. What is the difference in the mean performance scores of students in peace education after exposure to Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning?
3. What is the difference in the mean performance score in peace education between male
and female students‘ taught peace education using scaffolding strategies in colleges of education in Nasarawa state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the above stated research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated for the study.
Ho1. There is no significant difference between the mean performance score in peace education between students‘taught using scaffolding strategy and those taught using conventional teaching approach in colleges of education in Nasarawa state.
Ho2. There is no significant difference between the mean performances scores of students in peace education after exposure to Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning.
Ho.3. There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of male and female students‘taught using scaffolding strategies in colleges of education.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The study is significant because it is expected to:
Help learners to learn cooperatively in the teaching and learning processes..