This study investigated the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State four research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of this comprised of all the secondary school students of Isi-uzo L.G.A totaling of 650.248 students were used as sample of this study through stratified random sampling technique self-developed structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Data was analyzed using frequency counts and percentage A critenon of 50% was set for this study. That is percentage below 50% is said to be rejected while percentage of 50% and above is accepted. The study fund out secondary school students in Isi-uzo L.G.A have no knowledge on the causes and consequences of STDs while students accepted that they have knowledge on the preventive and control measures of STDs. The paper concluded that students in Isi-uzo L.G.A have no knowledge on the causes and consequence of sex STDs. Therefore, recommended among others things that government should organize seminars/workshop to enlighten secondary school students on the issue of HIV/AIDS.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study
Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for disease young adults around the world. According to the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) (2001) the rates of gonorrhea and syphilis are at historic low, but we must realize the rates of sexually transmitted disease are still at epidemic rates. In fact the United State has the highest rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the industrialized world, with rates that are 50 to 100 times higher than other industrialized nations (woman’s health weekly, 2000). According to the CDC (2001), every year in the United States, an estimated 12 million persons acquire a sexually transmitted diseases, two thirds of these cases occur in persons under 25 years of age. The problem that
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are transmitted form one person to another through sexual intercourse either genitally, orally or anally.
(Agha, 2000). According to him, there is no known vaccine for STDs; the best protection against sexually transmitted disease is prevention. He went on to say that some are curable while some are not. This is because the micro-organisms that cause the diseases are resistant to many known drugs example acquire immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
World Health Organization (2004) says that, sexually transmitted diseases also include some increasing number of related disease conditions found to have been spread from one person to another through sexually contact, and are often referred to as the “second Generation” of sexually transmitted diseases
There are many factors that can be connected to the high rates of STDs. Some of these factors include how obtainable effective birth control is, knowing how to properly use birth control and the misconception that many young adults have of thinking they are untouchable when it comes to contracting a sexually transmitted disease. The lack of education about STDs is a primary factors researcher’s focus on when trying to find a solution to reduce the rates of sexually transmitted diseases. Physicians responded to a survey stating that adolescents, under the age of 18, were the type of patient who were least informed about STDs, yet this lack of education does not stop them having sex (Woman’s Health Weekly, 2004). Sex education is both a controversial and taboo topic in many schools and families. There has been a long time debate over who should be responsible for teaching children about sex. Should the parents be the sole educations, the schools, or a combination, in addition, schools are troubled with conflict over which approach to teaching sex education. Some people believed that there should be an abstinence approach where students are taught, sex should wait until after marriage. Others feel the comprehensive approach which includes education on contraception is more appropriate. A large body of research indicates that parents are the single most important influence on whether their teens become sexually active. Unfortunately, just 10 to 15 percent of today’s youth has discussed sex with their parents (Napier, 2009). These factors contribute to complications between both schools and the family, and may leave young adults lacking information they need to make healthy lifestyle choices.
These is evidence that students want sex education as part of the school curriculum. What some people may find surprising is when secondary students are permitted to participate in the determination of the social studies curriculum. Sex education almost always demanded. In addition, a course which deals with the practical problems of marriage are generally required (Michener, 2010). In Micheners study (2010) the schools attendance for this class which was optional, was perfect, and the discussion was constant. This shows that at this particular school, the sex education course was beneficial and this type of the course may need to be looked at closer by schools.
Another one of the factors that contribute to the high rate of STDs is that students are not using condoms when having intercourse. There are several reasons students give for not using condoms. Factors associated with not using condoms include embarrassment about condom purchase, not being able to discuss the use of condoms with partner, use of other forms of birth control which don’t prevent STDs, the belief that condoms interfere with sexual pleasure, and insufficient knowledge of STD transmission (Mac Donald, Wells, Fisher, Warren, King, Doherty and Bowie, 1990).
An additional factor which must be taken into consideration is the student’s perceived risk of getting a STD. Students in a study concluded by Ehde, Holm, and Robbins (2002) rated their risk of HIV infection as minimal, yet they reported frequently engaging in vaginal, oral and anal intercourse without the use of condoms. In other cases students report having enough information about sexually transmitted diseases, yet answers to knowledge questions show important misconception most people would think that with high rates of STDs and the high number of affected people, risky behaviour of students would decline. Yet surprisingly, these risky behaviours such as engaging in unprotected sex, having multiple sex partners and engaging in sex at an early age are not on the decline. In a study b De Buono Zinner, Daamen, and Mc Cormack (2003) the findings show that with the existence of major new infectious diseases (such as STDs), sexually practices among college school women did not change markedly in 14 years with respect to the number of sexual partners or specific sexual acts.
According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2006) in the Unite State indicates that there is an estimated 15.3 million new cases of four curable STD (gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, syphilis and trichonomiasis) occurred in (2001) alone. Sexually transmitted diseases do not only have human costs, but they make a significant financial impact on society. Another issue with sexually transmitted diseases is that either gender and all ages are affected. The problems associated with STDs can be especially damaging for females. The work of Agha, (2000) stated that, since these diseases affect man socially, emotionally and economically, the control and preventive measures should be the sole responsibility of the federal, state and Local Government and Health Departments as well as private medicine and voluntary organizations.
Statement of the Problem
Sexually transmitted diseases are on the increase many people are injected, this has led to the untimely death of many youths and adults as well.
There was due to low level of knowledge of students on the causes, symptoms, consequences, preventive measures and control measures of sexually transmitted diseases. Majority of young people live their lives recklessly and also are uneducated particularly in the rural areas.
In view of this and other available records, this study specifically seeks to find out the possible knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Isi-Uzo LGA of Enugu state on signs, symptoms, causes of AIDS, Gononhea, Chlamydial inflectional, syphilis, and Chonomiasis.
The study aims also at evaluating their knowledge on the consequences, preventive measures, and control measures of STD’s.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to find out knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Isi-Uzo Local Government of Enugu State to know.
(1) Whether secondary school students in Isi-Uzo LGA have knowledge on the causes of sexually transmitted diseases?
(2) Whether secondary school students in Isi-uzo LGA have knowledge on the consequences of STDs.
(3) Whether secondary school students in Isi-Uzo LGA have knowledge on the control measure of STDs
(4) Whether secondary school students in Isi LGA have knowledge
(1) How knowledgeable are secondary school students in Isi-Uzo LGA on the causes of sexually transmitted diseases
(2) How knowledgeable are student in Isi-Uzo LGA on the consequences of sexually transmitted diseases
(3) How knowledgeable are secondary school student in Isi- Uzo LGA on the control measures of sexually transmitted diseases.
(4) How knowledgeable are secondary school students in Isi- Uzo LGA on the preventive measures of STDs
Significance of the Study
The study will be of a great important to students, parents, Government. Health personnel, school administrators and general public.
The students will learn more on the causes, symptoms and consequence of STD’s thereby applying measure and reduce the rate of sexual intercourse.
Parents will learn techniques of educating their children on sexually matters at home by providing them with basic information.
Government will benefit from the study by having a clear insignt of the major causes of STD’s and there g the appropriate preventive measures to reduce deaths among the populace.
For the health personnel, they will provide health information about STD’s through poster and journals.
On the part of the school administration it will provide them with a good reason to include sex education in the school curriculum so as to create awareness to the dangers of per-marital sex.
For the general public, the study will provide them with information on the causes, symptoms, modes of transmission, consequences, preventive measures and control measure of STD’s thereby reducing deaths brought about by AIDS, Gononohea, Syphilis, etc
Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Isi-Uzo L. G. A. The study also examined the sign and symptoms, causes, consequences and control measure as variable under study..