1.1 Background of the Study
The emphasis on multi-sectoral approaches to solving the problems of poverty, and other human development challenges in the developing societies of the world has become the emerging trend since the turn of the new millennium. This paradigm shift is influenced by the premises that the resources available at the disposal of the government is inadequate to cater for the enormous challenges facing mankind in his social environment. This therefore means, the government, the private sector, community and other relevant stakeholders must partner and collaborate.
This new approach has been described by developmentalists as Public Private Partnership (PPP) approach to addressing the human development challenges in the society. It is within the context of the above that the whole concept of community participation in the running of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme of the federal government came into being.
Community participation in the delivery of Basic Education Programme simply means the active involvement and participation of the members of the communities where schools are located in the management and implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme as envisaged by the government. The essence of this participation and involvement of the communities is to elicit the spirit of commitment and ensure project sustainability and eventual ownership of the project and school.
The concept of community participation in the provision of social services has been described as botton-up approach to development. According to Egwu (2004), it is an evolving concept which builds on community resources, expertise, supplies and the best way to utilize the development Latent Potentials which are abundant in the communities.
The Universal Basic Education Programme of the federal government was a brain-child of the Chief Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration on assumption of office as President and Commander in Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1999. The programme was launched in Sokoto State in 1999 by former President Obasanjo in 1999. The UBE Programme is a new educational reform which focuses on the issues of access, equity and quality in the delivery of Basic Education. The Programme is intended to provide a free, compulsory, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school age as contained in the enabling law, UBE Act of 2004. The programme is primarily aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty in all facets in Nigeria because education is regarded as the panacea to human and development problems of any society.
The objectives of the UBE Programme includes among others as contained in the UBE Act of 2004: developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion, provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every child of school age; reducing drastically the incidence of school dropout from formal school system; catering for the learning needs of young persons who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate form of complementary approaches to the promotion of basic education; and ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, communicative and life civil values needed for laying a sound and solid foundation for Life-Long Learning (UBE Act, 2004).
The origin and antecedent of the present UBE Programme of the government can be traced to the various international treaties and agreements of the last Millennium. Some of these were, the Jomitien declaration and framework for Action on Education for All (EFA) in 1990, the Ouagadougou Pan-African declaration on Education of girls and women held in 1992, the Darkar – Senegal World Education Forum on Education for all which proposed the six EFA goals in 2000, and lastly and importantly, the World Millennium Summit which articulated the Millennium Development Goals agenda (MDG) in 2015.
It suffices to note that, the UBE Programme is a roadmap to achieving the needs of the National Economy Empowerment Development Strategic (NEEDS) and the Vision 2020 Agenda of the government which were all conceived within the Framework of the MDG thrust. The National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) Agenda also stresses on partnership and collaboration.
It is suffice to state here that the Motto of the Universal Basic Education reads thus “Education of all is the responsibility of all”. This motto undoubtedly captures and delivers the message that the provision of Basic Education to the Nigeria child is through collaboration and partnership.
The UBE Programme’s major goal as outlined in the enabling Law, UBE Act 2004 and Policy Guideline is; to engender positive changes which include making programme implementation more responsive to the needs of the people and ensuring that parents and communities are actively involved in the provision of Basic Education delivery. The UBE process involves, advocacy and mobilization of support to ginger education participation, empowerment of communities to take greater interest in education and eventual ownership of the schools amongst others.
The Universal Basic Education Programme is Nigeria’s response to the call for “Education for All” as well as the Millennium development goals number 1–3 which are directed at addressing problems of development, illiteracy and poverty, gender equity and elimination of gender disparity in schools by 2015. In line with this policy thrust and direction, the UBE Act of 2004 mandated the UBE Commission in section 9 of the Act to perform these functions amongst others:
Carry out mobilization and sensitization of the general public and enter into partnership with the communities and other stakeholders in Basic Education with the aim the overall of achieving Objectives of the compulsory, free Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. (UBE ACT 2004:4).
Communities as major stakeholders in the Universal Basic Education Project are expected to collaborate with the government in the following areas in the implementation of Basic Education.
- Prompt repair and renovation of blown-off school roofs.
- Construction/innovation of school through Self-help.
- Mobilization for enrolment of School Aged Children in schools.
- Provision of infrastructural and Instructional materials in school to support effort of Government.
- Assistance in procurement of books for School Libraries to improve reading and writing skill of Pupils.
- Provision of school Uniform and books to wards/children.
- Assist in provision of Teaching/Learning materials in Schools.
- Pooling of resources to assist the schools in areas of needs.
- Provision of friendly environment for teaching/learning in School.
- Encourage enrolment and retention of pupils in school.
- Checkmate Child Trafficking through enrolment of School Aged Children.
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme being a programme of the federal government is implemented in the 36 States of the Federation including the federal capital territory through the various States Universal Basic Education Boards (SUBEB).
It is on the background of the above that this research work, “Community Participation and the UBE Programme in Cross River State from 2006 – 2012” was examined.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study sought to examine community participation in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme in Cross River State from 2006 to 2012. The essence of the study was to determine the extend to which communities are involved in the implementation process of the UBE programme as contained in the policy documents and enabling law, CRS, law No. 1 of 2006.
The realization of the Universal Basic Education Programme of the federal government requires the collaboration of the government with communities and other stakeholders since government alone cannot achieve this. Communities are expected to perform some of the following roles: ensure the maintenance of infrastructure and facilities for the UBE programme in their local school; prompt responds to renovation of blown- off school roofs through Community Self-help Initiative; Mobilization for enrollment/retention of pupils in school; provision of logistic support and enabling environment for the implementation of the UBE programme; assist government to address challenges of out-of-school children in the State; identify and respond to the needs of the schools among others. Unfortunately due recognition is not accorded Community Members inspite of the critical roles these grassroot Stakeholders play in the implementation of Educational Programmes such as the UBE Programme in Cross River State.
Consequently, there is dearth of information on the level of participation of Community Members in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the study area. Therefore, it is imperative to ascertain the level of Participation of Community Members in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Scheme in Cross River State.
Thus, this study investigated the level of Community Participation in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Cross River State from it inception in 2006 to 2012.
1.3 Research Questions
The following Research questions were designed to guide the study:
- How have community members participated in the implementation of the UBE programme in the state?
- To what extent do communities participate in the implementation of Self-help project of the UBE programme in the state?
- What is the extent of community participation in the mobilization of pupils for school enrollment and retention in the UBE Programme in the state?
- What is the contribution of members of the community in the provision of infrastructure and instructional materials in the UBE Programme in the state?
- What is the extent of parental contribution to the education of the children/wards in the UBE Programme in the state?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to examine community participation in the implementation of the Universal Basic Programme in Cross River State.
The objectives of the study were identified as follows:
- To determine the various ways communities had participated in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme in the State.
- To identify the different ways communities had participated in the implementation of the Self-help of the Universal Basic Education Programme in the State.
- To determine the level of community participation in the mobilization of pupils for school enrollment to achieve the objective of the UBE programme.
- To determine the level of community commitment and participation in the provision of infrastructural/instructional materials for the UBE programme in schools.
- To ascertain if the level of community participation had enhanced the implementation of the UBE programme in the State.
- To identify challenges inherent in the effective mobilization of the community members to achieve access, quality and equity in delivery of basic education in the State.
- To identify the extent of parental support for the education of their children/wards.
1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
a. the level of community participation has no influence on the implementation of the UBE community initiated Self-help projects.
b. the level of community participation has no impact on increased enrollment of pupil in schools.
c. the level of community assistance in infrastructural/instructional material provision has no impact on the success of UBE programme.
d. parental level of support for wards education has no influence on the successful implementation of the UBE programme in my community.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will be very useful to the government, ubec Governing Board, the State Universal Basic Education Board Management, and the various stakeholders involved in the delivery of Basic Education in the State and the country at large.
- The findings from this study will in no doubt awaken the consciousness of Members of the community on their roles and expectations toward the successful implementation of Basic Education in the State. This is so because many parents and members of the community still have the strong notion and belief that it is the sole responsibility of the government to provide basic education to the people.
- The findings from the study will create a proper synergy for better partnership and collaboration between the government and community members in the provision of basic education.
- The findings from the study will help identify some of the challenges that hinder effective community mobilization for support of the UBE Programme.
- The findings of the research will create an enabling environment where communities and other stakeholders would have opportunity to interact and discuss issues relating to the provision of basic needs of the school and how these needs can be met.
- The findings from the research study will assist identify the abundant human and material resources available to communities and with the aim of harnessing and pooling these resources with the community support for the development of basic education in the State.
- The finding of this study will serve as literature review to future scholars who may want to carry out research in similar related area.
- Lastly, it will be useful to the management of Universal Basic Education Commission as reference point to other State SUBEB how to mobilize community support for UBE Programme.
1.7 Scope of the Study
this Research Work is focused on community participation and the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Cross River State from the inception of the UBE Programme in the State from 2006 to 2012. The 18 Local Government Education Authorities in the State where 1,018 public primary school existed for the delivery of Basic Education Programme constituted the scope of coverage for the study.
Information and data used for the analysis of this study were from sampled school/communities in the 18 LGEAs on the expected areas of community participation such as prompt response to renovation of school blocks, mobilization of pupils by parents for school enrollment, provision of infrastructural/instructional materials for effective teaching and learning, provision of relevant school materials/textbooks for pupils by parents among others.
Akin to this, the study was restricted to relevant stakeholders at the communities such as traditional rulers, members of the School Based Management Committees (SBMC), School heads, parents, Teachers, Community members who also constituted part of the scope of this study.
This study should be understood within the above context.
Showing number of public primary schools LGA-by-LGA
S/N Local Government Areas No. of Schools 1. Abi 45 2. Akamkpa 62 3. Akpabuyo 24 4. Bakassi 12 5. Bekwarra 57 6. Biase 55 7. Boki 91 8. Calabar Municipal 22 9. Calabar South 21 10. Etung 24 11. Ikom 61 12. Obanliku 78 13. Obubra 73 14. Obudu 66 15. Odukpani 65 16. Ogoja 87 17. Yakurr 48 18. Yala 128 Total 1,018
Source: prs Dept: CRS SUBEB, Calabar (March, 2012)
1.8 Operational definition of Terms
- Community: This refers to a group of people living within a distinct geographical area where a public primary school is located.
- Participation: This refers to the process where members of the community are mobilized to take active part or involvement in the management of the school.
- Community participation: This refers to the involvement and participation of members of the community, parents and guardians including traditional rulers in the management and implementation of the UBE Programme of the Government.
- Community development: This refers to process which the effort of the people themselves, are united with those of government authorities to improve the socio-economic/cultural conditions of communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them contributed fully to national progress.
- Universal Basic Education Programme: This refers to new 9 year Educational Policy of 3 year lower primary, 3 years Upper and 3 years Junior Secondary of the Federal Government that is compulsory for every child of school age in Nigeria.
- Collaboration: This refers to coming together of different stakeholders for the purpose of providing basic education.
- Stakeholders: This refers to the different agencies, organizations and key actors involved in the provision of Basic Education delivery e.g. government, community, donor agencies, parent, etc.
- Substructure: This refers to the first formal foundational education a child receives and from which the secondary and subsequent educations are built. If this foundation is weak, it affects the other levels of education.
- Superstructure: Superstructure here refers to the secondary and other levels of education including the overall development of the child.
- Infrastructural Decay: This refers to the dilapidating conditions of school buildings, furniture, classrooms and other amenities which tend to affect effective teaching and learning.
- Poverty: This refers to inability to provide self and family with food, Medicare, education and other social necessities of life. It is a state of deprivation.
- Millennium Development Goal: This refers to a set of 8 goals ratified by 189 world leaders in the year 2000 as a common global strategy of achieving equitable and peaceful world development by 2015. These 8 goals are: Eradication of Poverty and hunger, achieve Universal Primary Education, Gender Equality, Child Mortality, Maternal Health, HIV/AIDS and other diseases, environmental sustainability and global partnership for development.