This study sought to examine the perception of mothers on the teaching of sex education at Junior Secondary School Level in Ohaozara Local Government of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to: (i) To identify the perception of mothers about the teaching of sex education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. (ii) To find out how adequate is the curriculum of sex education to the hosting community. (iii) To examine the method of teaching of sex education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. (iv) To determine the strategies to improving the teaching of Sex Education. Four research question were formulated to guide the study. The area of the study was Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of three thousand three hundred (3,300). Secondary school students in the study area. The sample size for the study was three hundred students (300) were drawn from six (6) secondary schools in the area of the study randomly. The questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. The finding of the study revealed that sex education is an indispensable tool in the prevention of teenage pregnancy. Sexually transmitted infections Stis and V.V.F among teenagers. The study also revealed those factors hindering the acceptance of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area such as religious/ traditional beliefs, lack of knowledge about Sex Education, fear of unknown apathy etc. The researcher therefore, recommends that governments should introduce Sexuality Education into the school curriculum as a course on its own. Also parents and guardians should perceive Sex Education as an indispensable tool in the prevention of teenage pregnancy.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study
Sex education is the study about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour (Wikipedia, 2012). Sex education can be best described as character education. It consists of instruction to develop understanding of the physical, emotional, social-economic and psychological phases of human relations as they are affected by male ad female relationship (Asha, 2007). It is pertinent to understand that the history of sexuality education dated back to our ancestors, who laid must emphasis on the care self and the act of procreation, emerging population and health concerns have led to the re-thinking and re-identification of the relationship between sexuality and human activity and behaviour.
The appearent rejection of sexual education by some concerned groups was echoed in this day publication of Wednesday, 12 January, 2005 under the caption “group condemns sex education in Lagos schools” and in the Muslims submission at the on-going national political conference, Abuja where the chairman of Jamatu-Was-Ril-Islam condemned in strong terms government’s support for the sexuality education programme. In his words, he said “we need religious education but they gave us sexuality education” channels news broadcast at 10’0clock March 3, 2005.
SIECUS (2008), simply defined sex education as an act of learning how to conform to a certain art of living by being able to reason, examine and monitor oneself in clearly defined terms. It implies that man’s sexuality is integrated into his total life development as a healthy entity and as a source of creative energy. Infect, sex education is a term used to describe human sexuality which means that it emphasizes education about all aspects of sexuality and sex orientation, sexual pressure, valves, decision-making, communication, dating, relationships, sexuality transmitted diseases (STDs) and how to avoid them and birth, control methods. From the definitation no wonder Martin Luther broke away from St. Augustine’s sexual prohibition who felt that sex discussion was sinful and decided to live in celibacy.
Eventually the merit valve and strength of sexuality education were acknowledge at the highest level of governance at the national level in the ministry of education. The Nigerian government approved the national curriculum for comprehensive sexuality education in Nigeria way back in August 2001. However, retrogressive and conservative groups frowned at the concept of sexuality and the policy was bastardized to eliminate the use of the term sexuality an action based on the fear of providing information that would address the core of patriarchal exploitation of women. From the definitions above, it is understood that most mothers in Ohaozara Local Government Area left their children at junior secondary school level that makes it very poor at family level because mothers will continue living their children at junior secondary school level to get their first information outside home or among their peer groups.
In the light of the above, the people of Ohaozara Local Government Area are not left out. As an educationally advantaged area in Ebonyi state, tremendous social changes have relatively occurred, since more children are sent to school to acquire formal education for all round development of individual pupils or students in character with Sexuality Education being inclusive to make a better society. To this effect, the home is expected to assist the school in it’s efforts to improve the quality of life of the children and to foster personality in consonance with Martin Luther’s philosophy about Sexuality Education.
Moreover, the high rate of teenage pregnancy and numerous cases of early vesico vaginal, childbirth and even cases of STDs is an evidence to prove that the mothers lock the knowledge on the teaching of Sex Education at Junior Secondary School Level in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. However, in order to put a stop to these problems, Sex Education should be given to the children from the family level. Mothers can make it a point of duty to give their children the right education on sex related issues before it could be introduced or mentioned to them outside or else where (Oluremi, 2012). The mothers have failed to play their role in that most children get their first information about sex from their peer groups and of course wrongly because their mothers failed to teach them Sex Education from home in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. This goes a long way to ruin the lives of some young boys and girls because the relationship of these young boys and girls to their mothers is very poor as far as Sex Education is concerned.
Consequently such children abuse sexuality and ruin their lives for ever and some may have their reproductive organs destroyed through illegal abortion, some may contact sexually transmitted disease (STDs) and HIV/AIDS, some will fall victim of vesico vaginal fistula (V.V.F) or even die, all in the name of ignorance and these are the reasons why good percentage of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, high mortality rates of our teenage girls abound in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Even with our mothers, they also fall victim to all these problems due to they don’t have the perception or knowledge of the vital facts like not knowing how well to plan their families or involving themselves in extra-marital sex are due to lock of adequate information or knowledge or lack of proper education about one’s sexuality (Oluremi, 2002). The relationship of children to their mothers play a vital role. There are communication gap between children and their mothers or caregiver in Sex Education. It is important to remember that teaching young ones about sex, it helps to protect them from nisnwanyi and against ‘Ime mkpuke’ in Ohaozara language.
In doing this, the mothers should stress more on abstinence from pre-marital sex until the children gets married. This issues of Sex Education is very important topic in which people have very strong opinion, often as well as their own early experience. However mother’s participation is welcome in this important issue.
In respect of the above account, there is need for urgent and careful look mother’s participation in sex education of their children in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Statement of the Problem
Sexuality creates many problems in the society. Something is really going wrong about the perception of mothers on the teaching of sex education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Mothers leave their duty of educating their young boys and girls. The problem of early marriage among teenagers, high rate of pregnancy and the problem of the home in teaching Sex Education. The morbid fear of the term sexual plus the current wave of advocacy called “zip-up” clearly denies young people their freedom of information and expression, and impairs their access to health services.
Some of these children dropped out in the Junior Secondary Schools Level as a result of poverty and that is why there are a lot of applicants in the area, their most occupations of framing while some of the boys who are very lazy join bad gangs and begin to cause nuisance in the community just because they cannot carter for. One can imagine a teenage boy of about 17 years raping a girl of about 12 years old in rural area of Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State rending the child almost lifeless.
This happened in one of the village called Ogwu at “Uburu” in Ohaozara Local Government Area take closer look at the harmful and deadly effect of these problem government, mothers and religious groups should take serious action about this by providing strong and stealy remedies and not only fighting the risky behaviour like the outcome of HIV/AIDS and other STDs but providing sex education to the children and teenagers which will rightly direct their ideas about sexuality and correct those who had already been miss-informed before they start wrong practices.
As emphasized by (Nwosu, 2001), who started that consistent information give better result especially who it has to do with education or changing peoples unhealthy attitude to describe one. Therefore, this study aims at identifying the effective and scientific way of changing the negative attitude of parents towards teaching of Sexuality Education to students of Junior Secondary Schools in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study is to discover the perception of mothers on the teaching of Sex Education at Junior Secondary Schools in Ohaozara Local Government area of Ebonyi State.
Specific of objectives of this study are to:
1. To identify the perception of mothers about the teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
2. To find out how adequate is the curriculum of Sex Education to hosting community.
3. To examine the method of teaching Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
4. To determine the strategies to improve the teaching of sex education.
Significance of the Study
The finding of this research work will be of great importance to mothers, teenagers, governments, families, community and society.
The study is considered significant as it will direct and current the attitudes of mothers toward teaching of Sex Education at Junior Secondary Schools Level in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It will also highlight the degree of knowledge and practice of Sex Education in the family level. Expose the factors that contribute to their ignorance in Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
The findings and recommendations of this study will be beneficial to both mothers and teenagers in so many rural areas especially in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State in order to correct their misconception about Sex Education. The study will also help the mothers, religious group and other policy maker in health education sector to find out the area they can assist to minimize the problem faced by our mothers and teenagers in most villages especially in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State on sex related issues. The ministry of education and youth development will benefit from the finding to the youths in expressing their sexual feelings in ways that are not harmful. The study will also help the Nigerian education system succeed in helping the students understand the implications of their sexuality upon which their social and sexual will be at the micro level. The study is consisted significance lent as the direct and corrects the perception of mothers towards teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Finally, the ministry of education and youth development will equally benefits from this as it will help them in determining of Sexuality Education both at state and federal level.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is focused on assessing the perception of mothers on the teaching of Sex Education at junior secondary schools level in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. In the content scope, the study investigates how the perception of mothers about the teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara, how adequate is the curriculum of Sex Education to hosting community, examine the method of teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, and to improve the teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
This study was limited to only mother and teenagers in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
In order to solve the above enumerated problem research questions:
1. What is the perception of mothers about the teaching of Sex Education?
2. How adequate is the curriculum of Sex Education to the host community?
3. What are the methods of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
4. What strategies could be used in improving the teaching of Sex Education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?.